IMBE News – Jeudi 23 février 2017

 

 

Le pire est encore à venir ...

 Climate scientists face harassment, threats and fears of 'McCarthyist attacks'
Researchers will have to deal with attacks from a range of powerful foes in the coming years – and for many, it has already started
A little less than seven years ago, the climate scientist Michael Mann ambled into his office at Penn State University with a wedge of mail tucked under his arm. As he tore into one of the envelopes, which was hand-addressed to him, white powder tumbled from the folds of the letter.
Mann recoiled from the grainy plume and rushed to the bathroom to scrub his hands.
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/feb/22/climate-change-science-attacks-threats-trump

 Trump can save his presidency with a great deal to save the climate
Donald Trump is a deal maker, and there’s a great deal to be made on climate change
A month into his presidency, Donald Trump already has a minus-8 job approval rating (43% approve, 51% disapprove). Congress has a minus-50 approval rating, and the Republican Party has a minus-14 favorability rating. All are facing widespread protests, marches, and public resistance.
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/climate-consensus-97-per-cent/2017/feb/22/trump-can-save-his-presidency-with-a-great-deal-to-save-the-climate

 

 UNIVERSITE

 Conditions de vie des étudiants : principaux axes d'amélioration 2012-2017
Thierry Mandon a inauguré, le 22 février 2017, le "Lieu de vie", nouveau bâtiment du CROUS dédié à la restauration étudiante et aux activités sportives situé sur le plateau de Saclay. A cette occasion, le secrétaire d’Etat chargé de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche est revenu sur les mesures engagées depuis 2012 en faveur des conditions de vie des étudiants.
Gage de réussite, elles représentent un effort inédit autour de cinq axes prioritaires
http://www.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/cid113380/conditions-de-vie-des-etudiants-principaux-axes-d-amelioration-2012-2017.html

 
Après un doctorat, une insertion professionnelle difficile mais finalement « très bonne »

Si les cinq années suivant le diplôme sont marquées par les contrats courts et un taux de chômage de 14 %, sur le long terme, les docteurs se distinguent par un taux d’emploi et des salaires élevés.
http://www.lemonde.fr/campus/article/2017/02/21/apres-un-doctorat-une-insertion-professionnelle-difficile-mais-finalement-tres-bonne_5083276_4401467.html

 
Un scandale tranquille : des enseignants toujours aussi mal formés
Beatrice Mabilon-Bonfils, Université de Cergy-Pontoise; Alain Jaillet, Université de Cergy-Pontoise et Line Numa-Bocage, Université de Cergy-Pontoise
Bilan critique du système des Masters des métiers de l'enseignement, de l'éducation et de la formation (MEEF) et des Ecoles supérieures de professorat et de l'éducation (EPSE).
https://theconversation.com/un-scandale-tranquille-des-enseignants-toujours-aussi-mal-formes-73216

 
Les étudiants français sont désormais les plus nombreux à partir en Erasmus
Avec près de 40 000 jeunes partis en Erasmus en 2014-2015, la France devient le premier pays d’origine, mais recule à la 4e place comme pays d’accueil.
http://www.lemonde.fr/campus/article/2017/02/21/les-etudiants-francais-sont-les-plus-nombreux-a-partir-en-erasmus_5083221_4401467.html

  

Anthropocène (suite)

Une nouvelle une « ère géologique » ?
Dans un premier article, nous nous sommes intéressés aux subdivisions de l’échelle des temps géologiques.
Abordons maintenant la question de l’Anthropocène. Ce mot était popularisé par le prix Nobel de chimie Paul Crutzen en 1995 pour décrire une période au cours de laquelle les activités anthropiques ont laissé une empreinte sur l’ensemble de la planète (comme on le verra plus loin). Ce terme a depuis fait flores dans la littérature scientifique et, peut-être plus encore, dans les sciences sociales, politiques et, par-dessus tout, les médias. Le site Google Scholar par exemple nous donne (au 20 février 2017) 35800 articles pour une notion publiée en 2002 !
https://theconversation.com/anthropocene-une-nouvelle-une-ere-geologique-73336

 Pourquoi vouloir imposer l’Anthropocène ?
La période Anthropocène est définie comme due à l’homme (mais pas à tous les hommes sur Terre), elle s’inscrit dans l’histoire de l’humanité, elle a sa place dans le calendrier de l’histoire humaine.
Pourquoi vouloir en faire une ère géologique ? Ce serait à la fois inutile et inapproprié car elle n’en possède pas les caractères.
https://theconversation.com/pourquoi-vouloir-imposer-lanthropocene-73456

 Rappel : L’Anthropocène et l’échelle des temps géologiques
https://theconversation.com/lanthropocene-et-lechelle-des-temps-geologiques-73330

 

  

Les océans pollués par des particules invisibles de plastique
Selon ce rapport de l’IUCN, les activités quotidiennes telles que laver du linge et conduire contribuent de manière significative à la pollution des océans.
http://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2017/02/22/les-oceans-pollues-par-des-particules-invisibles-de-plastique_5083321_3244.html

  

En 2030, l’espérance de vie atteindra 90 ans… ou pas
Modèle parfait ou « fausse science » : l’article publié, mercredi, dans la revue « The Lancet » est largement contesté
Sur la planète scientifique, ce genre d’étude ne passe jamais inaperçue. Compte tenu de son sujet, il offre même la promesse d’en dépasser largement les frontières, tant est vive la quête d’une vie plus longue.
La prestigieuse revue médicale The Lancet l’a bien compris. Mercredi 22 février, une équipe de l’Imperial College de Londres y annonce qu’à l’horizon 2030 plusieurs pays développés pourraient voir leur espérance de vie flirter avec la barre des 90 ans pour les femmes, et des 85 ans pour les hommes.
http://www.lemonde.fr/sciences/article/2017/02/22/en-2030-l-esperance-de-vie-atteindra-90-ans-ou-pas_5083317_1650684.html

 

  

Publications IMBE

In Metabolomics
Chemogeography of the red macroalgae Asparagopsis: metabolomics, bioactivity, and relation to invasiveness -
Stéphane Greff, Mayalen Zubia, Claude Payri, Olivier P. Thomas, Thierry Perez
Metabolomics (2017) 13: 33.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11306-017-1169-z


In Biogeosciences
Simulating precipitation decline under a Mediterranean deciduous Oak forest: effects on isoprene seasonal emissions and predictions under climatic scenarios.
Anne-Cyrielle Genard-Zielinski, Christophe Boissard, Elena Ormeño, Juliette Lathière, Ilja M. Reiter, Henri Wortham, Jean-Philippe Orts , Brice Temine-Roussel, Bertrand Guenet, Svenja Bartsch, Thierry Gauquelin and Catherine Fernandez
Biogeosciences Discuss., doi:10.5194/bg-2017-17, 2017 - Manuscript under review for journal Biogeosciences - Discussion started: 9 February 2017
http://www.biogeosciences-discuss.net/bg-2017-17/bg-2017-17.pdf


In Biodiversity and Conservation
Erosion of insect diversity in response to 7000 years 4 of relative sea-level rise on a small Mediterranean island
Yoann Poher, Philippe Ponel, Frédéric Guiter, Valérie Andrieu-Ponel, Frédéric Médail - Biodivers Conserv, feb. 2017
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10531-017-1322-z?no-access=true

  

 

Parutions

 CNRS Le journal Hiver 2017 - n°287
https://lejournal.cnrs.fr/numeros-papiers

 
American Journal of Botany - February 2017; Vol. 104, No. 2
http://www.amjbot.org/?etoc

 
In Sciences Eaux & Territoires (IRSTEA)
Des continuités écologiques d’importance nationale aux trames vertes et bleues régionales : quelles méthodes de prise en compte ?
Par : SORDELLO, Romain
http://www.set-revue.fr/des-continuites-ecologiques-dimportance-nationale-aux-trames-vertes-et-bleues-regionales-quelles

 
In American Journal of Botany
Pollinator-mediated interactions in experimental arrays vary with neighbor identity
Melissa K. Ha and Christopher T. Ivey - American Journal of Botany - February 2017; Vol. 104, No. 2
http://www.amjbot.org/content/early/2017/02/15/ajb.1600293.abstract


 From University of Vermont
Wild Bee decline threatens US crop production
First US wild bee map reveals 139 'trouble zone' counties
The first-ever study to map US wild bees suggests they are disappearing in the country's most important farmlands.
http://www.uvm.edu/~uvmpr/?Page=news&storyID=22053
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-02/uov-bdt021717.php

 
In Journal of Applied Ecology
Novel socio-ecological approach helps identifying suitable wolf habitats in human-dominated landscapes
About one third of the Swiss landscape offers suitable wolf habitat. Nonetheless, there is only a small fraction thereof where the wolf is tolerated by local communities. Those regions – characterized by both favorable environmental conditions and a positive attitude towards the wolf – are identified as candidate regions for the successful short to medium-term wolf expansion, according to a study.
http://www.media.uzh.ch/en/Press-Releases/2017/wolf-habitat.html
Article
Dominik M. Behr, Arpat Ozgul, Gabriele Cozzi. Combining human acceptance and habitat suitability in a unified socio-ecological suitability model: a case study of the wolf in Switzerland. Journal of Applied Ecology. February 17, 2017
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.12880/abstract;jsessionid=CEB88E6D1E52D61ECDE7E1E017621536.f04t01

 
In Global Change Biology
Winners, losers among fish when landscape undergoes change
As humans build roads, construct buildings and develop land for agriculture, freshwater ecosystems respond ? but not always in the ways one might expect.
http://www.washington.edu/news/2017/02/21/winners-losers-among-fish-when-landscape-undergoes-change/
Article
Jonathan W. Moore, Julian D. Olden. Response diversity, nonnative species, and disassembly rules buffer freshwater ecosystem processes from anthropogenic change. Global Change Biology, 2016
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13536/abstract;jsessionid=0E6B80BE4B5C81E8662A30AF0DE8ACB7.f04t04

 
In Nature Communications
Winners and losers: Climate change will shift vegetation
Projected global warming will likely decrease the extent of temperate drylands by one-third over the remainder of the 21st century coupled with an increase in dry deep soil conditions during agricultural growing season.
http://www.umu.se/english/about-umu/news-events/news/newsdetailpage/winners-and-losers-climate-change-will-shift-vegetation.cid279336
Article
Daniel R. Schlaepfer, John B. Bradford, William K. Lauenroth, Seth M. Munson, Britta Tietjen, Sonia A. Hall, Scott D. Wilson, Michael C. Duniway, Gensuo Jia, David A. Pyke, Ariuntsetseg Lkhagva, Khishigbayar Jamiyansharav.
Climate change reduces extent of temperate drylands and intensifies drought in deep soils. Nature Communications, 2017
http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14196

  


In PNAS

Genetic data show mainly men migrated from the Pontic steppe to Europe 5,000 years ago
A new study, looking at the sex-specifically inherited X chromosome of prehistoric human remains, shows that hardly any women took part in the extensive migration from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe approximately 5,000 years ago. The great migration that brought farming practices to Europe 4,000 years earlier, on the other hand, consisted of both women and men. The difference in sex bias suggests that different social and cultural processes drove the two migrations.
https://www.uu.se/en/media/news/article/?id=8264&area=2,5,10,16&typ=artikel&lang=en
Article
Amy Goldberg, Torsten Günther, Noah A. Rosenberg, and Mattias Jakobsson.
Ancient X chromosomes reveal contrasting sex bias in Neolithic and Bronze Age Eurasian migrations. PNAS, February 2017
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/02/17/1616392114

 
The secret of scientists who impact policy
For influence, engaging stakeholders is key, study shows
Researchers analyzed 15 policy decisions worldwide, with outcomes ranging from new coastal preservation laws to improved species protections, to produce the first quantitative analysis of how environmental knowledge impacts the attitudes and decisions of conservation policymakers.
http://www.uvm.edu/giee/?Page=news&storyID=22219&category=Gund
Article
Stephen M. Posner, Emily McKenzie, Taylor H. Ricketts. Policy impacts of ecosystem services knowledge. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2016
http://www.pnas.org/content/113/7/1760

 
In Water Resources Research
Colorado River flows will keep shrinking as climate warms
Warming in the 21st century reduced Colorado River flows by at least 0.5 million acre-feet, about the amount of water used by 2 million people for one year, according to new research. Climate change models project increasing temperatures, but future precipitation projections have more uncertainty. A new report, the first to quantify the different effects of temperature and precipitation on recent Colorado River flow, shows as temperature keep increasing, Colorado River flows will keep declining.
https://uanews.arizona.edu/story/colorado-river-flows-keep-shrinking-climate-warms
Article
Bradley Udall, Jonathan Overpeck. The 21st century Colorado River hot drought and implications for the future. Water Resources Research, 2017
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016WR019638/abstract

 
In eLife
How habitat destruction figures in long-term survival plans
Some organisms might have an interesting strategy for long-term survival: switching between two unsustainable forms of behaviour that, when kept unchecked, can actually cause them to wipe out their own homes.
Article
Zong Xuan Tan, Kang Hao Cheong. Nomadic-colonial life strategies enable paradoxical survival and growth despite habitat destruction. eLife, 2017

 
From Penn State
Three-way dance between herbivores, plants and microbes unveiled
WWhat looks like a caterpillar chewing on a leaf or a beetle consuming fruit is likely a three-way battle that benefits most, if not all of the players involved, according to an entomologist.
http://news.psu.edu/story/451295/2017/02/18/research/three-way-dance-between-herbivores-plants-and-microbes-unveiled


From University of Rhode Island
Professor examines effects of climate change on coral reefs, shellfish
Professor is studying how a variety of marine organisms are responding to changes in their environment. Focusing on reef-building corals and other shelled creatures that are threatened by increasing temperatures and ocean acidification, she is testing them to determine how species may acclimatize to the new circumstances.
http://web.uri.edu/celsnews/new-uri-professor-examining-effects-of-climate-change-on-coral-reefs-shellfish/

 
In Scientific Reports
Impacts of mass coral die-off on Indian Ocean reefs revealed
Warming seawaters, caused by climate change and extreme climatic events, threaten the stability of tropical coral reefs, with potentially devastating implications for many reef species and the human communities that reefs support.
http://www.exeter.ac.uk/news/featurednews/title_570610_en.html
Article
C. T. Perry, K. M. Morgan. Bleaching drives collapse in reef carbonate budgets and reef growth potential on southern Maldives reefs. Scientific Reports, 2017

http://www.nature.com/articles/srep40581

 

In Nature Ecology & Evolution
Those who help each other can invade harsher environments
Through cooperation, animals are able to colonize harsher living environments that would otherwise be inaccessible, according to a new study. The research community has long believed this was the other way around -- that species in tough environments had to cooperate to survive. As a result the established view of why animals cooperate is turned upside-down.
http://www.lunduniversity.lu.se/article/those-who-help-each-other-can-invade-harsher-environments
Article
Charlie K. Cornwallis, Carlos A. Botero, Dustin R. Rubenstein, Philip A. Downing, Stuart A. West, Ashleigh S. Griffin.
Cooperation facilitates the colonization of harsh environments. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 2017
http://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-016-0057

 
In Nature Ecology & Evolution
More warm-dwelling animals and plants as a result of climate change
Since 1980, populations of warm-dwelling species in Germany have increased. The trend is particularly strong among warm-dwelling terrestrial species, as shown by the most comprehensive study across ecosystems in this regard to date. The most obvious increases occurred among warm-dwelling birds, butterflies, beetles, soil organisms and lichens according to a new study. Thus, it appears possible that rising temperatures due to the climate change have had a widespread impact on the population trends of animals in the past 30 years.
http://www.senckenberg.de/root/index.php?page_id=5210&kid=2&id=4370
Article
Diana E. Bowler, Christian Hof... Cross-realm assessment of climate change impacts on species’ abundance trends. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 2017
http://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-016-0067

 
Encore une ...
From Ohio State University
Mediterranean diet may decrease pain associated with obesity
Eating a Mediterranean diet could decrease the chances an overweight person will experience regular pain, new research suggests.
https://news.osu.edu/news/2017/02/21/pain-obesity/

 

  

Presse

 Lutte contre les feux de forêt dans les Bouches-du-Rhône : l'état ne fait plus de cadeau
Ils étaient plus ou moins nombreux, dans ces réunions publiques organisées dans les mairies de secteurs, entre la mi-janvier et le 6 février. Des représentants de Comités d'intérêt de quartier et des habitants, venus écouter les intervenants des marins-pompiers de Marseille et de la Direction départementale des territoires et de la mer (DDTM). Lors de ces consultations publiques, on parlait PPRif (Plan de prévention des risques d'incendies de forêt).
Une nouveauté, qui zonera ces secteurs où le risque est tel qu'il deviendra interdit d'y construire quoi que ce soit. Ce document ira même au-delà du Plan local d'urbanisme : si le PLU définit une zone constructible et que le PPRif y proscrit toute urbanisation, c'est ce dernier qui sera décisif. De fait, le PPRif est opposable au PLU.
http://www.laprovence.com/article/societe/4333943/lutte-contre-les-feux-de-foret-dans-les-bouches-du-rhone-letat-ne-fait-plus-de-cadeau.html

 
Deep sea life faces dark future due to warming and food shortage
New study reveals negative impact of climate change, human activity, acidification and deoxygenation on ocean and its creatures
The deep ocean and the creatures that live there are facing a desperate future due to food shortages and changing temperatures, according to research exploring the impact of climate change and human activity on the world’s seas.
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/feb/23/deep-ocean-life-dark-future-warming-food-shortages-study

 
Environnement : consommer bio pour sauver l'Huveaune
Du massif de la Sainte- Baume à Marseille, l'Huveaune traverse vingt- sept communes et de nombreuses activités humaines, des vallées industrielles mais aussi des zones agricoles, qui recouvrent 8 % du territoire.
Forcément, la qualité de l'eau en est impactée. Des nitrates et des phosphates issus des pesticides et engrais chimiques utilisés par les agriculteurs conventionnels viennent polluer les eaux, même s'"il ne faut pas stigmatiser", note Estelle Fleury, la directrice du Syndicat intercommunal du bassin versant de l'Huveaune (SIBVH).
http://www.laprovence.com/article/edition-aubagne-la-ciotat/4331009/environnement-consommer-bio-pour-sauver-lhuveaune.html

 
Aix : parc Rambot, les opposants au parking occupent le terrain
Les défenseurs des arbres aixois se sont retrouvés au parc Rambot pour un pique-nique hier. Ils semblent avoir, pour l'heure, gagné la bataille du cernage, abandonné "sine die" par la mairie.
http://www.laprovence.com/article/politique/4330809/parc-rambot-les-opposants-au-parking-occupent-le-terrain.html