IMBE News – Vendredi 3 mars 2017

 

 

Savoir persuader : les concours d’éloquence dans l’enseignement supérieur français
Être deux, est-ce déjà trop ? » Ce 10 mai 2016, à la Bibliothèque Nationale de France, devant le public venu nombreux assister à la finale du concours d’éloquence de Sorbonne Universités, Victor Pourcher va défendre l’affirmative.

Oui, être deux, c’est déjà trop. Non qu’il en soit nécessairement convaincu, mais parce que c’est le jeu : faire un discours sur un sujet imposé en défendant une thèse qui l’est tout autant.
https://theconversation.com/savoir-persuader-les-concours-deloquence-dans-lenseignement-superieur-francais-73658


Un an après : agriculture et paysage, des liens à géométrie variable
Sur des siècles, des générations successives ont bâti des finages soignés, déjà perceptibles dans les enluminures du livre d’Heures du duc de Berry (XVe siècle). Pour la communauté rurale, ces finages rassemblaient un ensemble fort varié de terres cultivées pour subsister, disposer du pain quotidien et du pot (potage). Ces mêmes surfaces correspondent aujourd’hui à l’étendue d’une ou deux fermes. Découlèrent de ces pratiques agraires des paysages riches en biodiversité, souvent pittoresques, tracés dans des mailles étroites.
https://theconversation.com/un-an-apres-agriculture-et-paysage-des-liens-a-geometrie-variable-54615

IGN : Remonter le temps - Consultation et impression de données anciennes et actuelles
https://remonterletemps.ign.fr/


La génération Erasmus à la rescousse de l’Europe ?
Etudiant parti en échange universitaire à Rome, Reda Merida appelle à mettre aux commandes ces jeunes qui « ambitionnent de construire des ponts plutôt que des murs ».
Après les vingt-cinq ans du traité de Maastricht le 7 février, on fêtera les soixante ans du traité de Rome, le 25 mars. Mais au fil du temps, la célébration de ces actes majeurs de la construction européenne se fait de plus en plus discrètement. En ces temps troublés de crises – économique, sociale, migratoire et sécuritaire –, partout en Europe, des partis politiques de tous bords prévoient de sortir des traités, une promesse qui bénéficie d’un fort engouement des électeurs.
http://www.lemonde.fr/campus/article/2017/03/02/la-generation-erasmus-a-la-rescousse-de-l-europe_5088465_4401467.html



«On peut réduire les pesticides sans nuire à la productivité»
Selon une étude coordonnée par Nicolas Munier-Jolain, ingénieur de recherche à l’Inra, auprès de 946 exploitations agricoles, il est possible de réduire les traitements en maintenant une productivité équivalente ou meilleure dans 94% des cas.
Réduire significativement l’usage de pesticides est possible sans nuire à la productivité et à la rentabilité d’une exploitation agricole. C’est la conclusion d’une étude menée en France.
http://www.liberation.fr/futurs/2017/03/01/on-peut-reduire-les-pesticides-sans-nuire-a-la-productivite_1552286

Référence
Reducing pesticide use while preserving crop productivity and profitability on arable farms - Martin Lechenet, Fabrice Dessaint, Guillaume Py, David Makowski & Nicolas Munier-Jolain
Nature Plants 2017 - http://www.nature.com/articles/nplants20178




Publication IMBE

In Current Zoology
Invasive rats strengthen predation pressure on bird eggs in a South Pacific island rainforest - Q Duron, E Bourguet, H De Meringo, A Millon, E Vidal - Current Zoology, 2017

https://oup.silverchair-cdn.com/oup/backfile/Content_public/Journal/cz/PAP/10.1093_cz_zox009/1/zox009.pdf?Expires=1488882272&Signature=cdgCU8UR5Y1Ul91uQAvBLyw6EMiuZwZu5Aydy0xMDgmIgQfqYtsts-BfNwUrh5EANg6H1Ns7BDrIqjC34zxp1A0~01XwwhRyuW1egxb7h07ocBRAW9DBv1evO-AlqYJBPnjWcvUdSQ1nJrXC6K1KrGEjFRNFZjr-qxsRdayYhltJyj7S2VZFmTJ~jBPO74oF~VKfnMODUS-d5GNMqBjlFJ~eC582Y8iGS42GMMMxXt9Bejue5iY2FkyJWlAD9j3tYUrLp7yUZ3LRyS-YVUtIC4Yr4HhHrHwQ1h~jqeO5BCbSsYTRSu0ZsWsLEOuTBzOKn78FKmbro4i7ABQiK6qPWw__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAIUCZBIA4LVPAVW3Q




Annonces

Sciences Eaux & Territoires (IRSTEA)
Un nouveau numéro de Sciences Eaux & Territoires vient d'être mis en ligne.
Ressources, territoires et changement climatique
http://www.set-revue.fr/ressources-territoires-et-changement-climatique


Le CNRS fête les 10 ans de l'ERC
Créé en 2007, l'European Research Council (Conseil européen de la recherche) attribue chaque année des bourses de recherche individuelles à des scientifiques talentueux.
L'ERC célébrera ses 10 ans du 13 au 19 mars 2017 lors de « l'ERC Week » clôturée par un évènement scientifique le 21 mars à Bruxelles.
Le CNRS s'associe à cet anniversaire, à travers plusieurs rencontres organisées en France et l'ouverture d'un site internet présentant les 360 lauréats des différentes bourses ERC issus du CNRS.
http://www2.cnrs.fr/presse/communique/4921.htm

À Marseille : le 21 mars de 18h à 19h30
Six mini-conférences de 10 minutes menées par Katell Berthelot (ERC Consolidator Grant), Olivier Le Fèvre (ERC Consolidator Grant), Adrien Meguerditchian (ERC Starting Grant), David Robbe (ERC Consolidator Grant), Eric Vivier et Jérôme Wenger (ERC Consolidator Grant).  
Adresse : Salle de conférences du  Campus Joseph Aiguier - 31 chemin Joseph Aiguier
Informations auprès de contact.com@dr12.cnrs.fr

Semaine du cerveau 2017 : les chercheurs du CNRS à la rencontre du grand public
Marseille et ses environs
A Marseille, Michel Audiffren, du Centre de recherches sur la cognition et l'apprentissage (CNRS/Universités de Poitiers et François Rabelais de Tours) dirigera la conférence « Le cerveau vieillit-il mieux grâce à l'activité physique ? », le 15 mars à 18h au BMVR Alcazar. Il y expliquera la relation entre cerveau et sport et démontrera les bienfaits d'une pratique régulière d'une activité sportive sur le cerveau, à tout âge. Pierre Mallet et Daniel Mestre, chercheurs CNRS à l'Institut des sciences du mouvement - Etienne-Jules Marey (CNRS/AMU) animeront un bistrot sciences sur « La réalité virtuelle au service du réel », le 13 mars à 19h, à la brasserie des Danaïdes.
À Gardanne, Laurence Mouchnino, du Laboratoire de neurosciences cognitives (CNRS/AMU), abordera le thème de la relation entre le corps et son environnement au cours d'une conférence intitulée « L'équilibre : une valse à deux temps »  (mardi 7 mars, à 18h30 à la médiathèque Nelson Mandela).
http://www2.cnrs.fr/presse/communique/4913.htm




Parutions

In Earth and Planetary Science Letters
La stratégie de croissance des organismes marins calcifiants impacte le message que transmet leur squelette
Si la croissance du squelette des organismes marins calcifiants se fait en général par cristallisation directe du carbonate de calcium, on sait depuis peu qu’elle peut aussi se faire par l’intermédiaire d’une phase précipitée amorphe du carbonate de calcium.
Ces deux types de mécanismes ont-ils une incidence sur la signature isotopique en éléments trace de ces squelettes, signature exploitée par les chercheurs pour obtenir des informations sur l’environnement passé de notre planète ?

http://www.insu.cnrs.fr/node/6308

Article
Mavromatis V., Purgstaller B., Dietzel M., Buhl D., Immenhauser A., Schott J. (2017) Impact of amorphous precursor phases on magnesium isotope signature in Mg-calcite. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, .2017.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012821X17300432



In Nature Communications

Vers un meilleur déchiffrage des paléoclimats dans l’archive sédimentaire
Une équipe internationale composée de chercheurs de l’Université d’Oxford, de l’Université de Washington à Saint-Louis, de l’Institut de physique du globe de Paris (IPGP / CNRS / Université Paris Diderot / Université La Réunion) et du Plymouth marine laboratory vient de mettre au point un modèle mathématique des flux de carbone entrant et sortant dans des cellules de coccolithophoridés, lequel leur a permis de rendre compte de l’empreinte biologique, ou "effet vital", laissée par les coccolithophoridés dans la composition isotopique en carbone de leurs coquilles ou coccolithes.
Ce travail va permettre une reconstruction plus précise des conditions paléo-environnementales qui régnaient lors de la formation de ces coccolithes à l’interface atmosphère - océan.

http://www.insu.cnrs.fr/node/6314

H.L.O.M. McClelland, J. Bruggeman, M. Hermoso, R.E.M. Rickaby, The origin of carbon isotope vital effects in coccolith calcite. Nature Communications 2017

Feasibility and coexistence of large ecological communities
Jacopo Grilli, Matteo Adorisio, Samir Suweis, György Barabás, Jayanth R. Banavar, Stefano Allesina & Amos Maritan
The role of species interactions in controlling the interplay between the stability of ecosystems and their biodiversity is still not well understood. The ability of ecological communities to recover after small perturbations of the species abundances (local asymptotic stability) has been well studied, whereas the likelihood of a community to persist when the conditions change (structural stability) has received much less attention.
http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14389

Mutualism supports biodiversity when the direct competition is weak
Alberto Pascual-García & Ugo Bastolla
A key question of theoretical ecology is which properties of ecosystems favour their stability and help maintaining biodiversity. This question recently reconsidered mutualistic systems, generating intense controversy about the role of mutualistic interactions and their network architecture.
http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14326

Environmental conditions regulate the impact of plants on cloud formation
D. F. Zhao, A. Buchholz, R. Tillmann, E. Kleist, C. Wu, F. Rubach, A. Kiendler-Scharr, Y. Rudich, J. Wildt & Th. F. Mentel
The terrestrial vegetation emits large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the atmosphere, which on oxidation produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), SOA influences cloud formation and climate. In a warming climate, changes in environmental factors can cause stresses to plants, inducing changes of the emitted VOC. These can modify particle size and composition.
http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14067

Ecological and genetic basis of metapopulation persistence of the Glanville fritillary butterfly in fragmented landscapes
Ilkka Hanski, Torsti Schulz, Swee Chong Wong, Virpi Ahola, Annukka Ruokolainen & Sami P. Ojanen
Ecologists are challenged to construct models of the biological consequences of habitat loss and fragmentation. Here, we use a metapopulation model to predict the distribution of the Glanville fritillary butterfly during 22 years across a large heterogeneous landscape with 4,415 small dry meadows. The majority (74%) of the 125 networks into which the meadows were clustered are below the extinction threshold for long-term persistence.
http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14504



In Nature Plants

Earliest direct evidence of plant processing in prehistoric Saharan pottery
Julie Dunne, Anna Maria Mercuri, Richard P. Evershed, Silvia Bruni & Savino di Lernia
The invention of thermally resistant ceramic cooking vessels around 15,000 years ago was a major advance in human diet and nutrition1,​2,​3, opening up new food groups and preparation techniques. Previous investigations of lipid biomarkers contained in food residues have routinely demonstrated the importance of prehistoric cooking pots for the processing of animal products across the world4. Remarkably, however, direct evidence for plant processing in prehistoric pottery has not been forthcoming, despite the potential to cook otherwise unpalatable or even toxic plants
http://www.nature.com/articles/nplants2016194

The environmental impact of fertilizer embodied in a wheat-to-bread supply chain
Liam Goucher, Richard Bruce, Duncan D. Cameron, S. C. Lenny Koh & Peter Horton
Food production and consumption cause approximately one-third of total greenhouse gas emissions1,​2,​3, and therefore delivering food security challenges not only the capacity of our agricultural system, but also its environmental sustainability
http://www.nature.com/articles/nplants201712


In Agronomy Journal
Magic cover crop carpet?
Organic farmers can use a combination of cover crops and no-till methods to improve soil health, suppress weeds, and retain moisture, suggests a new report.
https://www.agronomy.org/science-news/magic-cover-crop-carpet

Article
C. L. Keene, W. S. Curran, J. M. Wallace, M. R. Ryan, S. B. Mirsky, M. J. VanGessel, M. E. Barbercheck. Cover Crop Termination Timing is Critical in Organic Rotational No-Till Systems. Agronomy Journal, 2017
https://dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/aj/abstracts/109/1/272


In Genetics
Nature can beat back scientific tinkering with genes of entire species
Scientists have revealed daunting challenges to changing the DNA of entire populations of species via the most promising techniques available today to produce 'gene drive.'
https://news.ku.edu/2017/02/28/research-shows-nature-will-mount-strong-resistance-%E2%80%98gene-drive%E2%80%99-even-cutting-edge

Article
Robert L. Unckless, Andrew G. Clark, Philipp W. Messer. Evolution of Resistance Against CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Drive. Genetics, 2017
http://www.genetics.org/content/205/2/827


In Frontiers in Marine Science
Risky business: calculating climate change losses in major European coastal cities
A new study that assesses potential future climate damage to major European coastal cities if, as currently, global carbon emissions continue to track the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's worst emission scenario
https://blog.frontiersin.org/2017/03/02/calculating-climate-change-losses-in-major-european-coastal-cities/

Article
Luis M. Abadie, Elisa Sainz de Murieta, Ibon Galarraga. Climate Risk Assessment under Uncertainty: An Application to Main European Coastal Cities. Frontiers in Marine Science, 2016

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2016.00265/full


In Ecological Monographs
Tree scars record 700 years of natural and cultural fire history in a northern forest
Distinguishing human from climatic influence on historical fire patterns is critical to forest management planning, which is guided by historical patterns of fire frequency, size, and intensity. A Norwegian forest tells a story of a surge in human-instigated fires during the 17th and 18th centuries, followed by fire suppression after AD 1800, as economic motivations changed.
http://www.esa.org/esa/fire-scarred-trees-record-700-years-of-natural-and-cultural-fire-history-in-a-northern-forest/

Article
Jørund Rolstad, Ylva-li Blanck, Ken Olaf Storaunet. Fire history in a western Fennoscandian boreal forest as influenced by human land use and climate. Ecological Monographs, 2017
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/03/170301105557.htm


In Journal of Hymenoptera Research
Bee species with little known nesting-behavior observed to use plastic instead of leaves
Little is known about the nesting activities of some lineages of megachiline bees. Two scientists made use of their earlier observations, gathered during a survey in the United Arab Emirates, to fill some gaps in the knowledge of three species from such lineages. A curious instance of a bee attempting to build brood cells using green pieces of plastic is among their findings.
http://blog.pensoft.net/2017/03/01/bee-species-with-little-known-nesting-behavior-observed-to-use-plastic-instead-of-leaves/

Article
Sarah Kathleen Gess, Peter Alexander Roosenschoon. Notes on the nesting of three species of Megachilinae in the Dubai Desert Conservation Reserve, UAE. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 2017
http://jhr.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=11290


In BMC Genomics
Scientists reveal core genes involved in immunity of honey bees
A core set of genes involved in the responses of honey bees to multiple diseases caused by viruses and parasites has been identified by an international team of researchers. The findings provide a better-defined starting point for future studies of honey-bee health, and may help scientists and beekeepers breed honey bees that are more resilient to stress.
http://news.psu.edu/story/453712/2017/03/02/research/scientists-reveal-core-genes-involved-immunity-honey-bees

Article
Vincent Doublet, Yvonne Poeschl ... Unity in defence: honeybee workers exhibit conserved molecular responses to diverse pathogens. BMC Genomics, 2017
http://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-017-3597-6


In Ecological Engineering
Improving the biodiversity of green roofs
Using living organisms such as bacteria or fungi, as an alternative to chemical fertilizers, can improve the soil biodiversity of green roofs, according to new research.
http://uopnews.port.ac.uk/2017/02/28/improving-the-biodiversity-of-green-roofs/

Article
Heather Rumble, Alan C. Gange. Microbial inoculants as a soil remediation tool for extensive green roofs. Ecological Engineering, 2017
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/03/170301085255.htm


In Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Mollusk graveyards are time machines to oceans' pristine past
Mollusk fossils provide a reliable measure of human-driven changes in marine ecosystems and shifts in ocean biodiversity across time and space, new research shows.
http://news.ufl.edu/articles/2017/02/mollusk-graveyards-are-time-machines-to-oceans-pristine-past-.php

Article
Carrie L. Tyler, Michał Kowalewski. Surrogate taxa and fossils as reliable proxies of spatial biodiversity patterns in marine benthic communities. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2017
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1850/20162839


In Journal of Applied Ecology
Road salt alternatives alter aquatic ecosystems
Researchers test effects of common road salt, additives, and alternatives
Organic additives found in road salt alternatives -- such as those used in the commercial products GeoMelt and Magic Salt -- act as a fertilizer to aquatic ecosystems, promoting the growth of algae and organisms that eat algae, according to new research.
https://news.rpi.edu/content/2017/02/28/road-salt-alternatives-alter-aquatic-ecosystems

Article
Matthew S. Schuler, William D. Hintz, Devin K. Jones, Lovisa A. Lind, Brian M. Mattes, Aaron B. Stoler, Kelsey A. Sudol, Rick A. Relyea. How common road salts and organic additives alter freshwater food webs: in search of safer alternatives. Journal of Applied Ecology, 2017
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.12877/abstract;jsessionid=E5FDF8E7B5A44DBF850A66D160872D27.f03t01


In Anthropology Today
Will naming the Anthropocene lead to acceptance of our planet-level impact?
Using a case study on response to flooding in the American Midwest, anthropologist explore whether the naming of an epoch to reflect humanity's planet-scale impact has the power to shift perceptions & influence actions
Does a name in itself have sufficient symbolic power to cause a paradigm shift in how humans perceive our role in the changing geological patterns of the planet?
http://www.lehigh.edu/~dac511/pages/abstracts/AAA2014.html

Article
D.G. Casagrande, E.C. Jones, F.S. Wyndham, J.R. Stepp, R. Zarger. Ecomyopia in the Anthropocene. Anthropology Today, 2017
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8322.12326/abstract


In Nature Climate Change
Forests to play major role in meeting Paris climate targets
Forests are set to play a major role in meeting the objectives of the Paris Climate Agreement -- however, accurately monitoring progress toward the 'below 2°C' target requires a consistent approach to measuring the impact of forests on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
http://www.bristol.ac.uk/news/2017/february/forests-climate-targets-.html

Article
G. Grassi, J. House et al. Key role of forests in meeting climate targets but science needed for credible mitigation. Nature Climate Change, 2017
http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/v7/n3/full/nclimate3227.html


In Nature Ecology & Evolution
Resurrecting extinct species might come at a terrible cost
Bringing back extinct species could lead to biodiversity loss rather than gain, according to new work. The research suggested further stretching already-strained conservation budgets to cover the costs of de-extinction could endanger extant species (species still in existence).
https://www.uq.edu.au/news/article/2017/02/resurrecting-extinct-species-might-come-terrible-cost

Article
Joseph R. Bennett, Richard F. Maloney, Tammy E. Steeves, James Brazill-Boast, Hugh P. Possingham, Philip J. Seddon. Spending limited resources on de-extinction could lead to net biodiversity loss.
Nature Ecology & Evolution, 2017
http://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-016-0053





Presse

"Le choix du savoir"
Des moyens pour chercher et étudier - Rédigé par Hendrick DAVI et al.
http://www.imep-cnrs.com/docu/choix_savoir.pdf


La Paillasse, lieu ovni parisien qui fédère artistes et scientifiques
A l’occasion d’O21 Paris, les 4 et 5 mars, zoom sur ce lieu atypique : un ancien entrepôt de textile devenu « laboratoire » dédié à l’innovation et à la création.
http://www.lemonde.fr/campus/article/2017/03/03/la-paillasse-lieu-ovni-d-enseignement-qui-federe-artistes-et-scientifiques_5088685_4401467.html


Omega-3 oils could tackle damage caused by air pollution, research shows
Exclusive New research indicates the benefits of eating omega-3 fatty acids, but also that pollution particles can penetrate the lungs into many organs, including testicles
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/mar/03/oil-supplements-could-tackle-harmful-health-effects-of-air-pollution


World Wildlife Day photography competition finalists
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/gallery/2017/mar/03/world-wildlife-day-photography-competition-finalists