IMBE News – Marsi 28 mars 2017

 

 

Famine en Afrique : peut-on éviter une catastrophe humanitaire ?
- Le Soudan du Sud s’est déclaré en situation de famine le 20 février
- Trois autres pays – le Nigeria, la Somalie et le Yémen – pourraient suivre dans les prochaines semaines
- Selon les Nations unies, 20 millions de personnes sont exposées, dont 7,3 millions au Yémen et 6,1 millions au Soudan du Sud
http://www.lemonde.fr/afrique/live/2017/03/28/famine-peut-on-eviter-une-catastrophe-humanitaire-une-journee-sur-le-monde-fr-pour-en-debattre-avec-nos-invites_5101748_3212.html

Conflits et climat : pourquoi les famines sont de retour
Au Nigeria, au Soudan du Sud, en Somalie et au Yémen, 20 millions de personnes sont menacées, selon les Nations unies.
Il s’agit de la plus grave crise humanitaire depuis la seconde guerre mondiale.
http://www.lemonde.fr/afrique/article/2017/03/28/conflits-et-climat-pourquoi-les-famines-sont-de-retour_5101632_3212.html

Faim dans la Corne de l’Afrique : cessons d’accepter lâchement l’intolérable
En Somalie, au Soudan du Sud, au Yémen, au Nigeria et bientôt en Ethiopie, la situation se détériore notamment sous l’effet de conflits locaux accentués par des décisions politiques voire des blocus internationaux.
http://www.liberation.fr/debats/2017/03/25/faim-dans-la-corne-de-l-afrique-cessons-d-accepter-lachement-l-intolerable_1558127



Point de vue : La liste du patrimoine mondial de l’Unesco prolonge-t-elle « la domination des Blancs sur les Africains » ?
L’historienne Chloé Maurel dénonce les effets pervers pour les populations d’Afrique et leurs cultures du classement de sites exceptionnels du continent.
Depuis 1972, l’Unesco, avec la Convention sur la protection du patrimoine culturel et naturel mondial, a créé la célèbre liste du patrimoine mondial, qui recense des sites considérés comme ayant une valeur exceptionnelle.
Mais ce classement peut susciter des tensions et des enjeux politiques, géopolitiques, économiques, et refléter les déséquilibres Nord-Sud. L’Afrique est gravement sous-représentée sur la liste du patrimoine mondial, ne rassemblant que moins de 10 % des sites.
http://www.lemonde.fr/afrique/article/2017/03/27/la-liste-du-patrimoine-mondial-de-l-unesco-prolonge-t-elle-la-domination-des-blancs-sur-les-africains_5101409_3212.html


Climate change: ‘human fingerprint’ found on global extreme weather
Global warming makes temperature patterns that cause heatwaves, droughts and floods across Europe, north America and Asia more likely, scientists find
The fingerprint of human-caused climate change has been found on heatwaves, droughts and floods across the world, according to scientists.
The discovery indicates that the impacts of global warming are already being felt by society and adds further urgency to the need to cut carbon emissions. A key factor is the fast-melting Arctic, which is now strongly linked to extreme weather across Europe, Asia and north America.
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/mar/27/climate-change-human-fingerprint-found-on-global-extreme-weather


Trump to sign executive order undoing Obama's clean power plan
EPA head Scott Pruitt, who sued to halt plan as Oklahoma’s AG, claims ending restrictions on coal power plants will be ‘pro-growth and pro-environment’
Donald Trump will on Tuesday sign an executive order to unravel Barack Obama’s plan to curb global warming, the head of the Environmental Protection Agency said on Sunday, claiming the move would be “pro-growth and pro-environment”.
The climate change battle dividing Trump’s America
“The president is keeping his promise to the American people,” said Scott Pruitt, a former Oklahoma attorney general who has questioned accepted climate science, in an appearance on ABC’s This Week. During the interview, Pruitt also called the Paris climate accord a “bad deal” and said Obama-era standards on auto emissions were “counter-helpful to the environment”.
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/mar/26/trump-executive-order-clean-power-plan-coal-plants


La forêt est-elle utile ?
Pour lutter contre le changement climatique, la forêt a plusieurs cartes à jouer. C’est d’abord un formidable puits de carbone capable d’absorber et de stocker le carbone issu du CO2. En France, chaque année, la forêt stocke 69,5 millions de tonnes de CO2 soit l’équivalent de 12 % des gaz à effet de serre émis au niveau national. La forêt fournit aussi des produits de substitution aux matières fossiles : bioénergies, biomatériaux, chimie végétale.
Enfin, elle contribue naturellement à réduire la vulnérabilité des populations et des écosystèmes aux effets du changement climatique.
Mais, pour gagner la partie, la forêt doit être en bonne santé.
http://www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/foret-est-elle-utile?utm_source=France+Environnement+Energie&utm_campaign=ce34915caa-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_01_12&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_c46822c3ae-ce34915caa-205622933



OPEN DATA
Quel statut pour les données de la recherche après la loi numérique ?
(Via Romain David)
Ce billet est le troisième d’une série que j’ai entamée au début de la semaine pour cerner les répercussions de la loi « République numérique » sur le secteur de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche.
Après avoir commencé lundi à passer en revue le volet Open Access de la loi, je me suis penché sur la question de l’ouverture des données publiques et sur la manière dont les universités ont été intégrées dans le principe « d’Open Data par défaut » instauré par le texte. Cela concerne au premier chef les données administratives de ces établissements- celles produites par leurs services centraux et communs -, mais je terminais en posant la question de savoir dans quelle mesure les données de la recherche allaient être impactées (ou non) par ces nouvelles obligations de publication en Open Data.
https://scinfolex.com/tag/recherche/




Publications IMBE

In Plos One
How a collaborative integrated taxonomic effort has trained new spongiologists and improved knowledge of Martinique Island (French Antilles, eastern Caribbean Sea) marine biodiversity
Thierry Pérez, Maria-Cristina Díaz, César Ruiz, Baslavi Cóndor-Luján, Michelle Klautau, Eduardo Hajdu, Gisele Lobo-Hajdu, Sven Zea, Shirley A. Pomponi, Robert W. Thacker, Sophie Carteron, Guillaume Tollu, Adeline Pouget-Cuvelier, Philippe Thélamon, Jean-Philippe Marechal, Olivier P. Thomas, Alexander V. Ereskovsky, Jean Vacelet, Nicole Boury-Esnault
Although sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems of the Caribbean Sea, their diversity remained poorly investigated in the Lesser Antilles. By organizing a training course in Martinique, we wanted both to promote taxonomy and to provide a first inventory of the sponge diversity on this island. The course was like a naturalist expedition, with a field laboratory and a classroom nearby.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0173859



In Zoologiacal Journal of the Linnean Society
Descriptions of new sponge species and genus, including aspiculate Plakinidae, overturn the Homoscleromorpha classification.
Zool J Linn Soc 179:707–724
Ruiz C, Muricy G, Lage A, Domingos C, Chenesseau S, Pérez T (2017)
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315645863_Descriptions_of_new_sponge_species_and_genus_including_aspiculate_Plakinidae_overturn_the_Homoscleromorpha_classification



In Climate of the Past
Precipitation changes in the Mediterranean basin during the Holocene from terrestrial and marine pollen records: a model–data comparison
Odile Peyron, Nathalie Combourieu-Nebout, David Brayshaw, Simon Goring, Valérie Andrieu-Ponel, Stéphanie Desprat, Will Fletcher, Belinda Gambin, Chryssanthi Ioakim, Sébastien Joannin, Ulrich Kotthoff, Katerina Kouli, Vincent Montade, Jörg Pross, Laura Sadori, and Michel Magny - Clim.
Past, 13, 249-265, 2017
http://www.clim-past.net/13/249/2017/cp-13-249-2017.html




Annonces

Groupe thématique d’Ecologie des Paysages

Enquête et création de la liste de diffusion
Le groupe thématique d’Ecologie des Paysages vient d’être créé au sein de la Société Française d’Ecologie (SFE). Il a pour objectif 1) de faciliter les échanges entre chercheurs appartenant à différents instituts français et francophones autour de l’Ecologie du/des Paysages ; et 2) de renforcer la visibilité de cette discipline, que ce soit au sein de l’écologie scientifique ou au sein des instances gouvernementales françaises...
https://www.sfecologie.org/offre/groupe-thematique-decologie-des-paysages-enquete-et-creation-de-la-liste-de-diffusion/


Dans le poste ...
Le fils de Neandertal ou le secret de nos origines
La découverte d'une étrange sépulture, vieille de plusieurs dizaines de milliers d'années, intrigue les paléontologues. Un voyage archéologique riche en rebondissements, qui plonge au coeur du raisonnement scientifique.
ARTE - Samedi 1er avril - 20h50
http://www.arte.tv/guide/fr/069085-000-F/le-fils-de-neandertal-ou-le-secret-de-nos-origines





Emplois, stages ...

Emplois

CV Appui à l’animation des Sciences Participatives à la LPO H/F
Ligue pour la Protection des Oiseaux
Contrat de travail : Autre - 8 mois  -  Expérience requise : Jeune diplômé / moins de 1 an
Localisation : France / Nouvelle-Aquitaine / Rochefort
Secteurs d'activité : • Management : Communication, animation    
https://www.emploi-environnement.com/fr/gestion_offre/visu_offre.php4?reference_offre=154512


Directeur(trice) du service Arche de la Nature H/F
Le Mans Metropole
Contrat de travail : Fonctionnaire Titulaire  -  Expérience requise : 3 à 5 ans
Localisation : France / Pays de la Loire / LE MANS
Secteurs d'activité : • Cadre de vie : Paysagisme, espaces verts
• Management : Communication, animation • Milieu naturel biodiversité : Aménagement, exploitation    
https://www.emploi-environnement.com/fr/gestion_offre/visu_offre.php4?reference_offre=154518


Ingenieur environnement H/F
SARL ROUTIER ENVIRONNEMENT
Contrat de travail : CDD - 6 mois minimum  -  Expérience requise : Jeune diplômé / moins de 1 an
Rémunération : à négocier
Localisation : France / Hauts-de-France / OISEMONT
Secteurs d'activité : • Agriculture : Agronomie, agriculture durable
• Cadre de vie : Cartographie, SIG • Milieu naturel biodiversité : Ingénierie, étude, recherche
https://www.emploi-environnement.com/fr/gestion_offre/visu_offre.php4?reference_offre=154542

 

Annonce poste à pourvoir
Résponsable du pôle Ecologie
Chargé-e de recherche en modélisation spatio-temporelle de la qualité environnementale Irstea Grenoble
Ingénieur PAYSAGE-EAU
Ingénieur responsable du suivi d’un dispositif de terrain expérimental à la Réunion ainsi que de l’acquisition et du traitement de données d’expérimentations agronomiques H/F

Assistance à maitrise d’ouvrage pour la déclinaison de sites et applications web pour des programmes de sciences participatives

VSC 6 mois en Eco-épidémiologie / Oiseaux marins – Terres Australes

Développeur full stack web avec expérience pour la conception de sites pour les sciences participatives

Biostatisticien(ne) en écologie aquatique (h/f) à Irstea Bordeaux (33)

 

 

Stages

Caractérisation des communautés d’invertébrés associées aux larves d’Odonates Gomphidae

Caractérisation des habitats des larves d’Odonates Gomphidae

Stage d’étude sur le comportement alimentaire et le choix des proies chez le Balbuzard pêcheur

Offre pour un stage de M1 à Bordeaux : « Evolution de la croissance en mer des grandes aloses, comparaison de la situation actuelle avec la situation 30 ans en arrière »

offre de stage université de tours, plantes aquatiques

 

 

Thèses

PhD opportunity: Rehabilitating landscapes by restoring digging mammals

Thèse: Ecophysiologie comparée de la cistude d’Europe Emys orbicularis, le long d’un gradient latitudinal

PhD: Comparative ecophysiology of the European pond turtle Emys orbicularis throughout a latitudinal gradient

Rôle des microorganismes de la rhizosphère en milieu complexe engrais – substrats organiques sur la biodisponibilité des nutriments et la croissance de la plante

Microrefugia facing climate change: bioclimatic modeling of steep-sided valleys in northeastern France.

Effet des facteurs physico-chimiques représentatifs du changement global sur la production de DMSP et STX chez Alexandrium

Three positions at the Aquatic Ecology Unit in Lund University

4 PhD positions in Behavioural and Physiological Ecology at Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia

PhD Positions Forest Ecology CULS in Prague

PhD/PostDoc position available at WasserCluster Lunz

 

 

Postdocs

Postdoctoral Opportunity in Stream Restoration

Post-Doctoral Research Fellow: Africa vegetation & carbon

Postdoc in stream ecology and environmental flows

Postdoctoral Opportunity At UCLA: Remote Sensing/Machine Learning in support of large-scale conservation

Postdoctoral Researcher Position in Forest Insect Pollinator Ecology University of Georgia

Postdoc position in theoretical community ecology at the University of Canterbury

Postdoc: thermal effects on reproductive performance and sexual communication in natural populations of treehoppers

Post-Doctoral Research Associate: Analysis of Meta-analysis methodology, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University

 


Parutions

American Journal of Botany
March 2017; Vol. 104, No. 3 :
http://www.amjbot.org/


From European Commission

Oilseed rape genes transfer from inside to outside of crop fields: study could aid GM risk assessment

This study is one of few to assess the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Researchers analysed the genetic makeup of oilseed rape plants within and outside crop fields over four years. They found similarity between cultivars of field plants in one year and those of feral plants (unplanted) in the following year. They also found persistence of the cultivars within the feral plants, which suggests that feral populations with genetically modified (GM) traits might result from persistent GM traits within field seed banks. The researchers say their findings could aid impact assessments of GM crops.
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/oilseed_rape_genes_transfer_inside_to_outside_crop_fields_gm_risk_assessment_485na1_en.pdf

Environmental DNA in rivers can assess broad-scale biodiversity
Traces of animals’ DNA in the environment, known as environmental DNA (eDNA), can be monitored to paint a picture of biodiversity, new research shows. This study used eDNA to assess biodiversity in an entire river catchment in Switzerland. Importantly, the eDNA technique allowed the researchers to detect both aquatic and land-based species in river water, making it possible to assess biodiversity over a broad scale.
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/environmental_dna_in_rivers_can_assess_broad_scale_biodiversity_485na4_en.pdf


In Nature
Weather extremes: Humans likely influence giant airstreams
From Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)
The increase of devastating weather extremes in summer is likely linked to human-made climate change, mounting evidence shows. Giant airstreams are circling the Earth, waving up and down between the Arctic and the tropics. These planetary waves transport heat and moisture. When these planetary waves stall, droughts or floods can occur. Warming caused by greenhouse-gases from fossil fuels creates favorable conditions for such events, an international team of scientists now finds.
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-03/pifc-weh032317.php

Article
Michael E. Mann, Stefan Rahmstorf, Kai Kornhuber, Byron A. Steinman, Sonya K. Miller, Dim Coumou (2017): Influence of Anthropogenic Climate Change on Planetary Wave Resonance and Extreme Weather Events. Scientific Reports [DOI: 10.1038/srep45242]
Weblink to the article once it is published:
http://www.?nature.?com/?articles/?srep45242



In Plos One

Evaluating the combined effects of ballast water management and trade dynamics on transfers of marine organisms by ships
Katharine J. Carney, Mark S. Minton, Kimberly K. Holzer, A. Whitman Miller, Linda D. McCann, Gregory M. Ruiz
Global trade by merchant ships is a leading mechanism for the unintentional transfer of marine organisms, including non-indigenous species, to bays and estuaries worldwide. To reduce the likelihood of new invasions, ships are increasingly being required to manage their ballast water (BW) prior to discharge in coastal waters. In the United States, most overseas arrivals have been required to manage BW discharge since 2004, primarily through ballast water exchange (BWE), which flushes out ballast tanks in the open ocean (>200 miles from shore).
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0172468


Relationships between abiotic environment, plant functional traits, and animal body size at Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
David Schellenberger Costa, Alice Classen, Stefan Ferger, Maria Helbig-Bonitz, Marcell Peters, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Michael Kleyer
The effect-response framework states that plant functional traits link the abiotic environment to ecosystem functioning. One ecosystem property is the body size of the animals living in the system, which is assumed to depend on temperature or resource availability, among others. For primary consumers, resource availability may directly be related to plant traits, while for secondary consumers the relationship is indirect
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174157


The public’s belief in climate change and its human cause are increasing over time
Taciano L. Milfont, Marc S. Wilson, Chris G. Sibley
Polls examining public opinion on the subject of climate change are now commonplace, and one-off public opinion polls provide a snapshot of citizen's opinions that can inform policy and communication strategies.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174246


Integrating the effects of latitude and altitude on the spatial differentiation of plant community diversity in a mountainous ecosystem in China
Manhou Xu, Li Ma, Yanyan Jia, Min Liu
Varying patterns of plant community diversity along geographical gradients are a significant topic in biodiversity research. Here, to explore the integrated effects of latitude and altitude on the plant community diversity in a mountainous ecosystem, we set Guancen Mountain in the northern section, Guandi Mountain in the middle section, and Wulu Mountain in the southern section of the Lvliang Mountains as study areas, and the plant community diversity (basal diameter and height of tree and species diversity indices of shrub and herb) was measured horizontally at different latitude gradients and vertically at different altitude gradients in late July 2015.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174231


Practising pastoralism in an agricultural environment: An isotopic analysis of the impact of the Hunnic incursions on Pannonian populations
Susanne E. Hakenbeck, Jane Evans, Hazel Chapman, Erzsébet Fóthi
We conducted a multi-isotope study of five fifth-century AD cemeteries in modern-day Hungary to determine relationships between nomadic-pastoralist incomers—the historically documented Huns and other nomadic groups—and the sedentary agricultural population of the late Roman province of Pannonia. Contemporary historical sources describe this relationship as adversarial and destructive for the late Roman population ...
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0173079


High school science fair and research integrity
Frederick Grinnell, Simon Dalley, Karen Shepherd, Joan Reisch
Research misconduct has become an important matter of concern in the scientific community.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174252


Contrasting effects of visiting urban green-space and the countryside on biodiversity knowledge and conservation support
Deborah F. Coldwell, Karl L. Evans
Conservation policy frequently assumes that increasing people’s exposure to green-space enhances their knowledge of the natural world and desire to protect it. Urban development is, however, considered to be driving declining connectedness to nature.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174376


Suitability of eastern pines for oviposition and survival of Sirex noctilio F.
Laurel J. Haavik, Kevin J. Dodds, Jeremy D. Allison
The European woodwasp, Sirex noctilio F., is a pest of pines in many areas around the world. Since its introduction to North America, the distribution of S. noctilio overlaps with a known host (Pinus sylvestris) and hosts native to North America.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174532

 

In PNAS

Metabolic evolution and the self-organization of ecosystems
Rogier Braakman, Michael J. Follows, and Sallie W. Chisholm
Understanding what drives self-organization in complex systems and how it arises is a major challenge. We addressed this challenge using dominant oceanic photosynthetic and heterotrophic microbes as a model system. Reconstructing the metabolic evolution of this system suggests that its self-organization and self-amplification were coupled and driven by an increasing cellular energy flux. Specifically, the evolution of cells steadily increased their metabolic rate and excretion of organic carbon.
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/03/21/1619573114.abstract.html?etoc


Statistical significance of seasonal warming/cooling trends
Josef Ludescher, Armin Bunde, and Hans Joachim Schellnhuber
The question whether a seasonal climatic trend (e.g., the increase of spring temperatures in Antarctica in the last decades) is of anthropogenic or natural origin is of great importance because seasonal climatic trends may considerably affect ecological systems, agricultural yields, and human societies.
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/03/21/1700838114.abstract.html?etoc


Evolution of the early Antarctic ice ages
Diederik Liebrand, Anouk T. M. de Bakker, Helen M. Beddow, Paul A. Wilson, Steven M. Bohaty, Gerben Ruessink, Heiko Pälike, Sietske J. Batenburg, Frederik J. Hilgen, David A. Hodell, Claire E. Huck, Dick Kroon, Isabella Raffi, Mischa J. M. Saes, Arnold E. van Dijk, and Lucas J. Lourens
The Antarctic ice cap waxed and waned on astronomical time scales throughout the Oligo-Miocene time interval. We quantify geometries of Antarctic ice age cycles, as expressed in a new climate record from the South Atlantic Ocean, to track changing dynamics of the unipolar icehouse climate state. We document numerous ∼110-thousand-year-long oscillations between a near-fully glaciated and deglaciated Antarctica that transitioned from being symmetric in the Oligocene to asymmetric in the Miocene.
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/03/21/1615440114.abstract.html?etoc


Origins of house mice in ecological niches created by settled hunter-gatherers in the Levant 15,000 y ago
Lior Weissbrod, Fiona B. Marshall, François R. Valla, Hamoudi Khalaily, Guy Bar-Oz, Jean-Christophe Auffray, Jean-Denis Vigne, and Thomas Cucchi
Decreases in hunter-gatherer mobility during the Late Pleistocene altered relationships with animal communities and led to domestication. Little is known, however, about how selection operated in settlements of varying duration.
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/03/21/1619137114.abstract.html?etoc


Climate change both facilitates and inhibits invasive plant ranges in New England
Cory Merow, Sarah Treanor Bois, Jenica M. Allen, Yingying Xie, and John A. Silander Jr.
Invasive species are often expected to benefit from novel conditions encountered with global change. Our range models based on demography show that invasive Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) may have much lower establishment in New England under future climate, despite prolific success under current climate, whereas other invasive and native plants may expand their ranges.
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/03/21/1609633114.abstract.html?etoc

 

In Phytobiomes
Basic microbiology research study unexpectedly uncovers practical findings for growers
Researchers initially set out to describe the microbiology of rye cover crop roots and how they changed over time in a field setting. Among the many microorganisms detected, they found several poorly understood oomycetes, microorganisms often responsible for plant diseases. Because these organisms were also able to cause corn seedling disease, what they unexpectedly discovered was the potential for elevated disease risk in corn following the use of cereal rye as a cover crop.
https://phys.org/news/2017-03-basic-microbiology-unexpectedly-uncovers-growers.html

Article
Matthew G. Bakker, Thomas B. Moorman, Thomas C. Kaspar, Daniel K. Manter. Isolation of Cultivation-Resistant Oomycetes, First Detected as Amplicon Sequences, from Roots of Herbicide-Terminated Winter Rye. Phytobiomes, 2017;
http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/10.1094/PBIOMES-10-16-0011-R



In Geology
More than 100 years of flooding and erosion in one event
Researchers have developed an integrated sediment, wood, and organic carbon budget for North St. Vrain Creek in the semi-arid Colorado Front Range following an extreme flooding event in September of 2013. Erosion of more than 500,000 cubic meters, or up to ~115-years-worth of weathering products, occurred through landsliding and channel erosion during this event.
http://www.geosociety.org/GSA/News/Releases/GSA/News/pr/2017/17-17.aspx

Article
S.L. Rathburn et al. The fate of sediment, wood, and organic carbon eroded during an extreme flood, Colorado Front Range, USA. Geology, March 2017
http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/early/2017/03/27/G38935.1



In Plos One
Farming becoming riskier under climate change
Climate change is predicted to impact agriculture, but a new study puts these changes in terms that are directly applicable to farmers. For Illinois, the corn planting window will be split in two to avoid wet conditions in April and May. Each planting window carries increased risk -- the early planting window could be thwarted by frost or heavy precipitation, and the late window cut short by intense late-summer drought.
http://news.aces.illinois.edu/news/farming-becoming-riskier-under-climate-change

Article
Bradley J. Tomasek, Martin M. Williams, Adam S. Davis. Changes in field workability and drought risk from projected climate change drive spatially variable risks in Illinois cropping systems. PLOS ONE, 2017
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0172301



In PNAS
Ant-plant symbioses: Adapting to changes in partner abundance
Many ant species live in often highly specific symbiotic relationships with plants from which both partners benefit. Researchers now reveal that such selective interactions can break down over the course of evolution.
http://www.en.uni-muenchen.de/news/newsarchiv/2017/renner_symbiosenende.html

Article
Guillaume Chomicki, Susanne S. Renner. Partner abundance controls mutualism stability and the pace of morphological change over geologic time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2017
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/03/23/1616837114


In Nature Plants
Nitrogen foraging ability of plants relies on mobile shoot-root hormone signal
Research uncovers molecular shoot-to-root signal in nitrogen-starved plants, revealing role for mobile plant hormone
http://en.nagoya-u.ac.jp/research/activities/news/2017/03/nitrogen-foraging-ability-of-plants-relies-on-mobile-shoot-root-hormone-signal.html

Article
Yuri Ohkubo, Mina Tanaka, Ryo Tabata, Mari Ogawa-Ohnishi, Yoshikatsu Matsubayashi. Shoot-to-root mobile polypeptides involved in systemic regulation of nitrogen acquisition. Nature Plants, 2017;
http://www.nature.com/articles/nplants201729


In Scientific Reports
Extreme weather events linked to climate change impact on the jet stream
Unprecedented summer warmth and flooding, forest fires, drought and torrential rain -- extreme weather events are occurring more and more often, but now an international team of climate scientists has found a connection between many extreme weather events and the impact climate change is having on the jet stream.
http://news.psu.edu/story/458049/2017/03/27/research/extreme-weather-events-linked-climate-change-impact-jet-stream

Article
Michael E. Mann, Stefan Rahmstorf, Kai Kornhuber, Byron A. Steinman, Sonya K. Miller, Dim Coumou. Influence of Anthropogenic Climate Change on Planetary Wave Resonance and Extreme Weather Events.
Scientific Reports, 2017
http://www.nature.com/articles/srep45242

 

Presse

56Kast : Le grand herbier numérique
Cette semaine, on redécouvre l'herbier du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle et ses 5,4 millions de spécimens numérisés avec le botaniste Thomas Haevermans. Sur la plateforme Les Herbonautes, les internautes aident à classer les spécimens en déchiffrant leurs étiquettes.
http://www.liberation.fr/futurs/2017/03/27/56kast-102-le-grand-herbier-numerique_1558589


L’Europe reste dans l’impasse sur le sujet controversé des OGM
Faute d’entente entre les Etats membres, la Commission devra décider si elle autorise la culture de deux nouvelles variétés de maïs transgéniques sur le sol européen.
http://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2017/03/27/l-europe-reste-dans-l-impasse-sur-le-sujet-controverse-des-ogm_5101536_3244.html


Fuveau : l'écopont, une arche de Noé jetée sur l'autoroute A52
L'écopont, ou corridor biologique, permet d'adoucir ces points de rupture que sont les autoroutes. Le Grenelle de l'Environnement, avec ses trames vertes et bleues, le préconise, et les sociétés d'autoroute le développent. Par philanthropie, bien sûr, mais aussi parce que cela aide les négociations avec l'État dans le cadre des négociations sur le renouvellement des concessions.
http://www.laprovence.com/article/ecoplanete/4380579/fuveau-lecopont-une-arche-de-noe-jetee-sur-lautoroute-a52.html


Les trois universités lilloises fusionnent
Les conseils d’administration des trois universités de Lille ont voté le 24 mars leur fusion en vue de la création de l’Université de Lille le 1er janvier 2018.
http://www.lemonde.fr/universites/article/2017/03/27/les-trois-universites-lilloises-fusionnent_5101556_4468207.html

Polémique autour de l’avenir des mutuelles étudiantes
Promesses « démagogiques », « hors sol », « injure faite à soixante ans au service des étudiants », Ahmed Hegazy, président d’Emevia, réseau national des mutuelles étudiantes régionales, ne mâche pas ses mots, lundi 27 mars, pour qualifier le projet de réforme de la sécurité sociale étudiante présenté par Emmanuel Macron.
http://www.lemonde.fr/sante/article/2017/03/28/polemique-autour-de-l-avenir-des-mutuelles-etudiantes_5101893_1651302.html


Ce que l’intelligence artificielle peut apporter à l’éducation
Entre promesses, fantasmes et peurs, l’intelligence artificielle constitue désormais un « enjeu majeur » pour notre société, comme l’a rappelé le secrétaire d’Etat chargé du numérique Christophe Sirugue, à l’occasion du dévoilement de la stratégie « France IA », le 21 mars 2017.
D’ici dix ans, 1,5 milliard d’euros pourrait être investi dans ce domaine qui touche l’automobile, la finance, la sécurité, mais aussi l’éducation.
http://defisdamphi.blog.lemonde.fr/2017/03/23/ce-que-lintelligence-artificielle-peut-apporter-a-leducation/


10 000 coins nature dans les écoles et les collèges : participez à l’opération
L’éducation à l’environnement et au développement durable est un levier majeur pour faire évoluer les comportements et relever les défis de la lutte contre le changement climatique et de la transition énergétique.
http://www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/10-000-coins-nature-dans-ecoles-et-colleges-participez-loperation