IMBE News – Jeudi 30 mars 2017



Alien intelligence: the extraordinary minds of octopuses and other cephalopods 
After a startling encounter with a cuttlefish, Australian philosopher Peter Godfrey-Smith set out to explore the mysterious lives of cephalopods. 
He was left asking: why do such smart creatures live such a short time?




Donald Trump signe un décret remettant en cause les mesures de Barack Obama sur le climat
Le président américain a martelé sa volonté de "mettre fin à la guerre contre le charbon".

Le décret de Donald Trump suscite de vives réactions
Le gouverneur démocrate californien Jerry Brown a notamment dénoncé « un cadeau inconscient du président Trump aux pollueurs ».
Pour Bob Ward, du Grantham Research Institute à la London School of Economics, renoncer au Clean Power Plan rendrait « pratiquement impossible pour les Etats-Unis d’atteindre leurs objectifs de l’accord de Paris » (baisse de 26 % à 28 % des émissions d’ici 2025 par rapport à 2005).

This Week in Controversial Environmental Laws
White House officials call for fewer rules for power plants, and more rules for federal environmental science.

From PIK
President Donald Trump recently signed an executive order to roll back US climate policies. 
On this issue, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, Director of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK): 
"Donald Trump's attempt to turn the US into a Jurassic Park run by dinosaur energy will eventually fail. However, it will hamper domestic climate action aiming at reducing emissions for a while. Internationally though, it will most probably close the ranks among the climate protection actors who will see Trump's intervention as a wake-up call for transformation. Not least, the decree will backfire on the US economy in its quest for global competitiveness."



Et après le BREXIT ?
A strong parliament will be nature’s last line of defence during Brexit 
EU membership has given Britain vital environmental laws. Any changes to legislation must be done with full public scrutiny to protect us from exploitation
... Ministers have already warned that only two-thirds of environmental regulations can be adopted as they are, leaving the remaining third in dangerous limbo. 
But even the laws that are directly transferred will be put on much shakier ground. The institutions that guarantee their enforcement, such as the European court of justice and the commission, will have no jurisdiction in Britain. So who will hold the government to account? No 10 sources have suggested Theresa May favours the option of the UK remaining a member of EU regulatory agencies, but what powers these watchdogs will retain and what laws they will be able to enforce is not clear.



Only Sweden, Germany and France among EU are pursuing Paris climate goals, says study 

UK ranks fifth in table assessing EU actions to cut carbon emissions by 40%, with most countries gaining wiggle room via loopholes
Sweden, Germany and France are the only European countries pursuing environmental policies in line with promises made at the Paris climate conference, according to a new ranking study.




APB 2017 : hausse du nombre de candidats à une première année d’études supérieures
Selon des chiffres publiés mardi par le ministère de l’éducation, 853 262 candidats ont formulé au moins un vœu sur la plate-forme Admission post-bac, soit 5 % de plus qu’en 2016.




Pollution des océans par le plastique, des solutions existent ! 
La masse de détritus plastique présente dans les océans est telle qu’on l’appelle souvent le « 7e continent ». Si l’innovation technique peut constituer une bonne façon de lutter contre ce fléau, tous les scientifiques s’accordent à dire que la meilleure réponse à apporter ne consiste pas à filtrer la mer, mais à changer nos comportements.






L'IMBE dans le poste ... (Via P. Chevaldonné)

Dans sa série documentaire "Science grand format — Les Mercredis de France 5", France 5 va diffuser le volet marin de 90 minutes « Conquérir les Océans » le mercredi 5 avril à 20h45. 
La réalisation est de Marina Boyenval et Emmanuelle Sudre. 
L'IMBE a participé au tournage avec la Comex sur la reconstitution 3D des fonds marins et des massifs de coraux profonds du canyon de la Cassidaigne, dans le Parc National des Calanques.
Le communiqué de presse est ici :
Il y aura rediffusion le samedi 8 avril à 16h10 et ce sera disponible en replay dès le 6 avril sur Pluzz :



Une nouvelle revue
Global Challenges is our new open access journal publishing fundamental and applied research addressing the world’s major challenges: 
• Climate Change • Energy 
• Food, Agriculture & Nutrition 
• Global Health • Water

Climate at your fingertips
Discover our planet’s changing climate through the eyes of satellites with Climate from Space, a new digital book for iPad and Android tablets featuring interactive maps and video interviews with top scientists.





In Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences
Fairy circles of Namibia: New research helps scientists gain insight
New insights have been gained into one of nature's great mysteries: the fairy circles of Namibia. Numbering in the millions, the so-called fairy circles are in the eastern, interior margin of the coastal Namib Desert, stretching from southern Angola to northern South Africa. They range in size from about 12 feet to about 114 feet, consisting of bare patches of soil surrounded by rings of grass. The origins of the circles have long been debated by researchers.
Sujith Ravi, Lixin Wang, Kudzai Farai Kaseke, Ilya V. Buynevich, Eugene Marais. Ecohydrological interactions within “fairy circles” in the Namib Desert: Revisiting the self-organization hypothesis. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 2017;jsessionid=3E66CF6F3F8B6D5ED207D3641614116E.f04t02



In Science Advances
NSF-funded IUPUI study of non-rainfall water in Namib Desert reveals unexpected origins
In a study conducted in one of the world's oldest and most biologically diverse deserts, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis scientists explored the origins of water other than rainfall and are identifying multiple origins. The study, supported by the National Science Foundation, is the first to report that the ocean is not the sole source of life-sustaining fog and dew for numerous plants and animals living in the Namib Desert.
Nonrainfall water origins and formation mechanisms - Kudzai Farai Kaseke, Lixin Wang and Mary K. Seely - Science 2017


From The Gerontological Society of America
Can intergenerational cooperation defeat climate change?
Older adults are powerful allies in addressing climate change, say researchers. Research shows that older adults are at risk for the effects of extreme weather events and climate change; but they are also a potential resource for climate action.


In Nature Climate Change
Forests fight global warming in ways more important than previously understood
Trees' role extends beyond carbon consumption, study finds
Trees impact climate by regulating the exchange of water and energy between Earth's surface and the atmosphere, an important influence that should be considered as policymakers contemplate efforts to conserve forested land, said the authors of an international study.
Ryan M. Bright, Edouard Davin, Thomas O’Halloran, Julia Pongratz, Kaiguang Zhao, Alessandro Cescatti. Local temperature response to land cover and management change driven by non-radiative processes. Nature Climate Change, 2017


In Nature Communications
Asian dust providing key nutrients for California's giant sequoias
Researchers find that dust from the Gobi Desert is providing more phosphorus than previously thought for plants in the Sierra Nevadas
Dust from as far away as the Gobi Desert in Asia is providing more nutrients than previously thought for plants, including giant sequoias, in California's Sierra Nevada mountains, a team of scientists have found
S. M. Aciego, C. S. Riebe, S. C. Hart, M. A. Blakowski, C. J. Carey, S. M. Aarons, N. C. Dove, J. K. Botthoff, K. W. W. Sims, E. L. Aronson. Dust outpaces bedrock in nutrient supply to montane forest ecosystems. Nature Communications, 2017


In Nature Climate Change
Local cooling value of forests affirms need for greater forest conservation, protection
Date:March 27, 2017 Source:NIBIO – Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research Summary:Forests take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. At the same time, forests promote the turbulent mixing of air near the surface and transpire large amounts of moisture to the atmosphere. A new study exposes the importance of these processes in keeping much of the planet’s surface cool.
Ryan M. Bright, Edouard Davin, Thomas O’Halloran, Julia Pongratz, Kaiguang Zhao, Alessandro Cescatti. Local temperature response to land cover and management change driven by non-radiative processes. Nature Climate Change, 2017




Les faux espoirs d'un projet de vaccin contre le sida
Le CNRS se désengage du projet
En France, une petite start-up niçoise, Biosantech, a lancé un essai clinique en 2013 pour développer un vaccin capable d'éliminer le VIH de l'organisme. 
Régulièrement dans les médias, elle affirme avoir obtenu des résultats très encourageants, mais la communauté scientifique et les associations restent sceptiques.


Il y a 15 000 ans l’homme était déjà sédentaire
Une nouvelle publication scientifique publiée dans les comptes rendus de l’Académie américaine des sciences fait reculer de 3 000 ans les débuts de la sédentarisation



Chez les oiseaux, avoir un gros cerveau permet d'éviter les voitures 
Chaque année dans le monde, des centaines de millions d'oiseaux se tuent en percutant une voiture. Pourquoi certains évitent une telle collision quand d'autres meurent sur les pare-brise? Une question de taille de cerveau, selon une étude publiée mercredi.


Au Canada ...
McGill et Potter: le symptôme du déclin des universités
... Malheureusement, de plus en plus à court de subventions gouvernementales permettant d’assurer une recherche rigoureuse et indépendante, les universités sont forcées de se tourner vers des bailleurs de fonds privés, « philanthropes » courtisés qui ne sont pas toujours exempts d’idéologies personnelles à propager sous un couvert universitaire.



From Harvard Gazette
Fake news is giving reality a run for its money 
Panelists ponder the future of journalism in a click-happy, unsourced world
That “fake news” is both pervasive and dangerous is no longer in doubt. How best to respond, however, is still an open subject. Because of that, the topic made for a lively panel Thursday at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society.


Harvard launches data science initiative 
A statistician and a computer scientist have been named co-leaders of Harvard’s new Data Science Initiative, the Harvard University Office of the Vice Provost for Research announced today.


Tunnel du Rove : Ségolène Royal veut accélérer le processus 
Depuis bientôt vingt ans, la réhabilitation complexe de l'étang de Berre, et surtout de sa partie sud, plaide pour sa réouverture. Pas à la circulation des bateaux, mais à celle de l'eau de mer qui, via un système de pompe, serait puisée côté Marseille, avant de rejoindre le Bolmon, puis l'étang.


A Aix, on a trouvé une solution contre les chenilles processionnaires 
Le service municipal des espaces verts d'Aix répartit une centaine de nichoirs dans les parcs et écoles de la ville. Objectif : faire revenir les oiseaux, seul ennemi naturel de la chenille processionnaire, en pleine prolifération