IMBE News – Vendredi 31 mars 2017

 

 

Le MuCEM, un écrin pour la nouvelle identité culturelle de Marseille
La ville de Marseille s’est dotée en 2013 d’un nouveau musée emblématique : le musée des civilisations de l’Europe et de la Méditerranée (MuCEM).

En plus de son architecture iconique, le musée est en lien direct avec la ville de Marseille.
Sa situation lui confère une position dominante face à la mer Méditerranée, tel un phare signifiant le rivage et répondant à la rive opposée.
Il lie par la culture autant le nord et le sud de la Méditerranée que les quartiers nord et sud de la ville.
https://theconversation.com/le-mucem-un-ecrin-pour-la-nouvelle-identite-culturelle-de-marseille-74502



Professor urges scientists to speak up about climate change
That's why scientists have to speak out, according to Naomi Oreskes, a Harvard history of science professor who has taken a close look at the causes and effects of climate change denial.
Oreskes, co-author, with Erik Conway, of the 2010 book "Merchants of Doubt," said that many climate scientists today are loath to speak out on the issue, instead saying that their role ends with gathering and presenting the facts. They worry that being viewed as an advocate or activist will damage scientific credibility.
http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2017/03/harvard-professor-urges-scientists-to-speak-up-about-climate-change/




TOTAL CLIMAT

Au Brésil, mangrove, forêt, pêche et coraux menacés par les projets pétroliers de Total
Les populations locales et les écologistes redoutent les fuites ou accidents de pétrole.
Sur la carte, ils ne forment que sept petits carrés multicolores sur le fond bleu de l’Océan atlantique. Sept petits quadrilatères d’un centimètre de côté représentant chacun, en réalité, une zone de 625 kilomètres carrés destinés à la prospection pétrolière, au large des côtes brésiliennes, à la limite des eaux territoriales de la Guyane française.
http://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2017/03/31/au-bresil-mangrove-foret-peche-et-coraux-menaces-par-les-projets-petroliers-de-total_5103677_3244.html


Le PDG de Total : « Trump ne pourra pas sortir du traité sur le climat »
Le Club de l’économie du « Monde ».
Patrick Pouyané relativise le virage américain sur l’énergie, analyse les affrontements politiques au Moyen-Orient et s’inquiète des volontés hégémoniques de la Turquie.
http://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2017/03/30/patrick-pouyanne-trump-ne-pourra-pas-sortir-du-traite-sur-le-climat_5103315_3232.html


The House Science Committee Once Again Flouts Science
At a surreal committee meeting on Wednesday, committee members advanced conspiracy theories, and Michael Mann was the lone voice on behalf of actual science.
During a hearing on Wednesday at the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology, Republicans sought to challenge the most basic facts that have been driving global climate policy for the past 20 years.
Among other things, one GOP member of the committee actually suggested that global warming might make sea levels drop.
In response, Representative Paul Tonko, a Democrat from New York, said, “Climate denial stands as a main pillar in the pantheon of political manipulation.”
https://psmag.com/the-house-science-committee-once-again-flouts-science-9e0d3e5ef97a


'Climate change is real': companies challenge Trump's reversal of policy
Mars Inc, Staples, The Gap and others speak out against Trump’s sweeping executive order that begins to dismantle Obama’s Clean Power Plan
In 2015, when Barack Obama signed the nation’s clean power plan, more than 300 companies came out in support, calling the guidelines “critical for moving our country toward a clean energy economy”. Now, as Donald Trump moves to strip those laws away, Mars Inc, Staples and The Gap are just a few of those US corporations who are challenging the new president’s reversal on climate policy.
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/mar/29/climate-change-companies-challenge-trump-mars-staples-gap


Suicidaire : faudra-t-il juger Trump ?
L’histoire qui s’écrit le juge déjà. Pour crimes contre la nature, l’avenir, et l’humanité, dénonce dans nos colonnes Nicolas Hulot.
Un retour vers le passé qui renvoie au fameux «le mode de vie des Américains n’est pas négociable» punché par George W. Bush en 1992, lors du premier sommet de la Terre.
http://www.liberation.fr/planete/2017/03/30/suicidaire_1559551


Climate change: global reshuffle of wildlife will have huge impacts on humanity
Mass migration of species to cooler climes has profound implications for society, pushing disease-carrying insects, crop pests and crucial pollinators into new areas, says international team of scientists
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/mar/30/climate-change-global-reshuffle-of-wildlife-will-have-huge-impacts-on-humanity


Climate change's toll on mental health
When people think about climate change, they probably think first about its effects on the environment, and possibly on their physical health. But climate change also takes a significant toll on mental health, according to a new report.
http://www.newswise.com/articles/climate-change-s-toll-on-mental-health

The puzzle in politics and polling
Analyst Nate Silver says media assumptions, not data, led to surprise over 2016 election results
http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2017/03/nate-silver-says-conventional-wisdom-not-data-killed-2016-election-forecasts/?utm_source=SilverpopMailing&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=03.31.2017%20%281%29

The curious disappearance of climate change, from Brexit to Berlin
The word climate does not appear once in the letter triggering the UK’s departure from Europe.
But it’s not just in London that the issue seems to be slipping from the political stage
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/mar/30/the-curious-disappearance-of-climate-change-from-brexit-to-berlin



« La vigne est en danger »
Le changement climatique et les greffes affaiblissent les ceps, selon le biologiste Marc-André Selosse.

Est-ce que la vigne pourrait disparaître ? « Extinction, non ! Danger d’affaiblissement, sans doute », répond ­Marc-André Selosse, professeur agrégé au ­Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, à Paris. Ce passionné de viticulture n’entend pas passer pour un décliniste. Il ajoute que, si l’année 2016 fut en effet très mauvaise, il faut « faire attention à ne pas prendre des conditions momentanées pour des tendances longues ».
http://www.lemonde.fr/vins/article/2017/03/31/la-vigne-est-en-danger_5103666_3527806.html



UNIVERSITE

U-Multirank 2017 : les universités et les grandes écoles françaises sur le haut du podium
Selon ce classement d’initiative européenne, intégrant d’autres critères que la recherche, le niveau des établissements tricolores est comparable à celui des universités britanniques.
Dévoilé jeudi 30 mars, le classement U-Multirank 2017 est particulièrement rassurant pour les 62 universités et grandes écoles françaises prises en compte, parmi 1 500 équivalents du monde entier. « Les institutions françaises font partie du groupe le plus fort en Europe. Elles sont du même niveau que celles du Royaume-Uni, de Scandinavie, des Pays-Bas, de Belgique ou d’Allemagne », estime Frans Van Vught, coresponsable de ce classement aux côtés de Frank Ziegele, directeur général du Centre for Higher Education (CHE) de Gütersloh, en Allemagne.

http://www.lemonde.fr/campus/article/2017/03/30/u-multirank-2017-les-universites-et-grandes-ecoles-francaises-sur-le-haut-du-podium_5103245_4401467.html

 




Annonces

CCMC Newletter
Thanks for opening the latest CMCC – Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change newsletter: research projects, papers updates and news about climate change science and policy
http://www.cmcc.it


Le Prix "Soyons clairs", pour un langage simple et clair dans les services publics
Le Prix "Soyons clairs" vise à stimuler les initiatives des services publics pour informer les usagers dans un langage simple, clair, adapté et facilitant les démarches et l’exercice des droits. Il récompense les équipes porteuses de projets de clarification du langage administratif quels que soient les supports utilisés.
Envoi des candidatures avant le 26 mai 2017.
http://www.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/cid115073/le-prix-soyons-clairs-pour-un-langage-simple-et-clair-dans-les-services-publics.html




Emplois

Chef de Projets Biodiversité / Environnement H/F

CDC Biodiversité
Contrat de travail : CDI  -  Expérience requise : plus de 10 ans
Rémunération : 45 ke à 55 ke €/an à négocier
Localisation : France / Nouvelle-Aquitaine / Bordeaux
Secteurs d'activité : • Milieu naturel biodiversité : Ingénierie, étude, recherche    
https://www.emploi-environnement.com/fr/gestion_offre/visu_offre.php4?reference_offre=154639

Chef de projet EAU H/F
BURGEAP SA
Contrat de travail : CDI  -  Expérience requise : 3 à 5 ans
Rémunération : à négocier
Localisation : France / Ile-de-France / Boulogne Billancourt
Secteurs d'activité : • Eau : Hydraulique fluviale et maritime, Réseaux d'eau, hydraulique urbaine    
https://www.emploi-environnement.com/fr/gestion_offre/visu_offre.php4?reference_offre=154594

Ingenieur environnement H/F
SARL ROUTIER ENVIRONNEMENT
Contrat de travail : CDD - 6 mois minimum  -  Expérience requise : Jeune diplômé / moins de 1 an
Rémunération : à négocier
Localisation : France / Hauts-de-France / OISEMONT
Secteurs d'activité : • Agriculture : Agronomie, agriculture durable
• Cadre de vie : Cartographie, SIG • Milieu naturel biodiversité : Ingénierie, étude, recherche    
https://www.emploi-environnement.com/fr/gestion_offre/visu_offre.php4?reference_offre=154542

 



Parutions


Co-signé par d'ex-imépiens ...
In Scientific Reports
Climate seesaw at the end of the last glacial phase
The climate of the Earth follows a complex interplay of cause-and-effect chains. A change in precipitation at one location may be caused by changes on the other side of the planet. A better understanding of these "teleconnections"—the linkages between remote places—may contribute to a better understanding of local impacts of future climate change. A look into the climate of the past helps to investigate the teleconnections.
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-03/ggph-csa032917.php

Article
Schlolaut, G., Brauer, A., Nakagawa, T., Lamb, H.F., Tyler, J.J., Staff, R.A., Marshall, M.H., Bronk Ramsey, C., Bryant, C.L., Tarasov, P.E., 2017. Evidence for a bi-partition of the Younger Dryas Stadial in East Asia associated with inversed climate characteristics compared to Europe. Scientific Reports
http://www.nature.com/articles/srep44983


How do plants make oxygen? Ask cyanobacteria
The ability to generate oxygen through photosynthesis—that helpful service performed by plants and algae, making life possible for humans and animals on Earth—evolved just once, roughly 2.3 billion years ago, in certain types of cyanobacteria.
https://phys.org/news/2017-03-oxygen-cyanobacteria.html#jCp

Article
Rochelle M. Soo et al, On the origins of oxygenic photosynthesis and aerobic respiration in Cyanobacteria, Science (2017).
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/355/6332/1436



In Science Advances
Social bees have kept their gut microbes for 80 million years
About 80 million years ago, a group of bees began exhibiting social behavior, which includes raising young together, sharing food resources and defending their colony. Today, their descendants—honey bees, stingless bees and bumble bees—carry stowaways from their ancient ancestors: five species of gut bacteria that have evolved along with the host bees.
http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/49021/title/In-Certain-Social-Bees--Gut-Microbiomes-Follow-Phylogeny/

Article
Dynamic microbiome evolution in social bees - Waldan K. Kwong, Luis A. Medina, Hauke Koch, Kong-Wah Sing, Eunice Jia Yu Soh4, John S. Ascher - Science Advances 2017
http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/3/e1600513

 


In PLOS ONE
Tackling resilience: Finding order in chaos to help buffer against climate change
A new article aims to provide clarity among scientists, resource managers and planners on what ecological resilience means and how it can be achieved.
http://www.washington.edu/news/2017/03/29/tackling-resilience-finding-order-in-chaos-to-help-buffer-against-climate-change/

Article
Britta L. Timpane-Padgham, Tim Beechie, Terrie Klinger. A systematic review of ecological attributes that confer resilience to climate change in environmental restoration. PLOS ONE, 2017;
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0173812



In Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Hair spacing keeps honeybees clean during pollination
Researchers quantify the cleaning process
A honeybee can carry up to 30 percent of its body weight in pollen because of the strategic spacing of its nearly three million hairs. The gap between each eye hair is approximately the same size as a grain of dandelion pollen, which is typically collected by bees. This keeps the pollen suspended above the eye and allows the forelegs to comb through and collect the particles
http://www.news.gatech.edu/2017/03/28/hair-spacing-keeps-honeybees-clean-during-pollination

Article
Guillermo J Amador, Marguerite Matherne, D’Andre Waller, Megha Mathews, Stanislav N Gorb, David L Hu. Honey bee hairs and pollenkitt are essential for pollen capture and removal. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 2017
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-3190/aa5c6e/meta;jsessionid=61D6F163C266FA2CECF0E18D63ABDACD.ip-10-40-1-105



In PNAS
Cornering endangered species
Geographic areas occupied by certain species shrink as they decline in abundance, leaving them more vulnerable to extinction by harvest, concludes new research.
http://www.news.ucsb.edu/2017/017821/cornering-endangered-species

Article
Matthew G. Burgess, Christopher Costello, Alexa Fredston-Hermann, Malin L. Pinsky, Steven D. Gaines, David Tilman, Stephen Polasky. Range contraction enables harvesting to extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2017
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/03/27/1607551114



In PLOS Biology
Poor outlook for biodiversity in Antarctica
The popular view that Antarctica and the Southern Ocean are in a much better environmental shape than the rest of the world has been brought into question in a new study.
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-03/mu-pof032917.php

Article
Steven L. Chown, Cassandra M. Brooks, Aleks Terauds, Céline Le Bohec, Céline van Klaveren-Impagliazzo, Jason D. Whittington, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Bernard W. T. Coetzee, Ben Collen, Peter Convey, Kevin J. Gaston, Neil Gilbert, Mike Gill, Robert Höft, Sam Johnston, Mahlon C. Kennicutt, Hannah J. Kriesell, Yvon Le Maho, Heather J. Lynch, Maria Palomares, Roser Puig-Marcó, Peter Stoett, Melodie A. McGeoch. Antarctica and the strategic plan for biodiversity. PLOS Biology, 2017
http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2001656



From CMCC
Xylella fastidiosa: how science tries to save olive trees
A great attention in the Apulia region to the problem. But it’s starting to become a reason of concern in other European countries, such as France and Spain. Fears and worries of people that see the olive tree heritage in danger are now focused on Xylella fastidiosa. Science is trying to find new innovative tools in order to provide useful solutions: plant-based sensors, climate predictions, infection analyses from leaf level to the landscape scale.
https://www.cmcc.it/article/shedding-light-on-xylella-fastidiosa-two-projects-of-the-cmcc-foundation




In PNAS

In vivo diagnostics of early abiotic plant stress response via Raman spectroscopy
Narangerel Altangerel, Gombojav O. Ariunbold, Connor Gorman, Masfer H. Alkahtani, Eli J. Borrego, Dwight Bohlmeyer, Philip Hemmer, Michael V. Kolomiets, Joshua S. Yuan, and Marlan O. Scully
Feeding a population of 9 billion in 2050 coupled with the changing climate and environmental stresses motivate us to develop advances in plant science and technology. We present a high-throughput plant phenotyping platform for detection of abiotic stress
http://www.pnas.org/content/114/13/3393.abstract.html?etoc



Multitrait successional forest dynamics enable diverse competitive coexistence
Daniel S. Falster, Åke Brännström, Mark Westoby, and Ulf Dieckmann
Walking through any forest, one is struck by the variety of plant forms coexisting. Given that all plants compete for the same basic resources, why is there not a single winner? Our study shows that when key ingredients common to all forests are accounted for—including disturbance events, competition for light, and two widely observed trait-based tradeoffs—models of niche differentiation predict forests of considerably greater diversity than was previously thought possible. In particular, our model accurately predicts the proliferation of species occupying niche space in low light, a feature of tropical forests that motivated the so-called neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography. The presented results thereby provide a platform for understanding diversity in forests worldwide.
http://www.pnas.org/content/114/13/E2719.abstract.html?etoc



Range contraction enables harvesting to extinction
Matthew G. Burgess, Christopher Costello, Alexa Fredston-Hermann, Malin L. Pinsky, Steven D. Gaines, David Tilman, and Stephen Polasky
Many threatened species including elephants, sturgeons, and bluefin tunas are harvested for high-value products. Species can be driven extinct if incentives to harvest do not diminish as populations decline; this occurs if harvest prices rise faster than costs with declining stock. Whereas recent conservation attention for these species has largely focused on market demand, we show—using a theoretical model and an empirical review—that contractions in species’ geographic ranges, which stabilize costs and may be especially common among terrestrial species, might often play a larger role in maintaining harvest incentives.
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/03/27/1607551114.abstract.html?etoc



Rapid evolution of resistance to parasitism in biological control
Nicholas J. Mills
A growing awareness of human dependence on the natural capital of ecosystem services has highlighted the importance of such services to the sustainable management of both natural and production ecosystems. Biological control is an ecosystem service in which a pest, pathogen, or weed is effectively controlled through an ecological interaction (trophic or competitive) with its natural enemies, henceforth referred to as biological control agents
http://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/early/2017/03/23/1702753114.extract.html?collection



Metabolic evolution and the self-organization of ecosystems
Rogier Braakman, Michael J. Follows, and Sallie W. Chisholm
Understanding what drives self-organization in complex systems and how it arises is a major challenge. We addressed this challenge using dominant oceanic photosynthetic and heterotrophic microbes as a model system.
http://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/early/2017/03/21/1619573114.abstract.html?collection



Statistical significance of seasonal warming/cooling trends
Josef Ludescher, Armin Bunde, and Hans Joachim Schellnhuber
The question whether a seasonal climatic trend (e.g., the increase of spring temperatures in Antarctica in the last decades) is of anthropogenic or natural origin is of great importance because seasonal climatic trends may considerably affect ecological systems, agricultural yields, and human societies.
http://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/early/2017/03/21/1700838114.abstract.html?collection



Evolution of the early Antarctic ice ages Open Access Article
Diederik Liebrand, Anouk T. M. de Bakker, Helen M. Beddow, Paul A. Wilson, Steven M. Bohaty, Gerben Ruessink, Heiko Pälike, Sietske J. Batenburg, Frederik J. Hilgen, David A. Hodell, Claire E. Huck, Dick Kroon, Isabella Raffi, Mischa J. M. Saes, Arnold E. van Dijk, and Lucas J. Lourens
The Antarctic ice cap waxed and waned on astronomical time scales throughout the Oligo-Miocene time interval. We quantify geometries of Antarctic ice age cycles, as expressed in a new climate record from the South Atlantic Ocean, to track changing dynamics of the unipolar icehouse climate state. We document numerous ∼110-thousand-year-long oscillations between a near-fully glaciated and deglaciated Antarctica that transitioned from being symmetric in the Oligocene to asymmetric in the Miocene. We infer that distinctly asymmetric ice age cycles are not unique to the Late Pleistocene or to extremely large continental ice sheets. The patterns of long-term change in Antarctic climate interpreted from this record are not readily reconciled with existing CO2 records.
http://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/early/2017/03/21/1615440114.abstract.html?collection



Climate change both facilitates and inhibits invasive plant ranges in New England
Cory Merow, Sarah Treanor Bois, Jenica M. Allen, Yingying Xie, and John A. Silander Jr.
Invasive species are often expected to benefit from novel conditions encountered with global change. Our range models based on demography show that invasive Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) may have much lower establishment in New England under future climate, despite prolific success under current climate, whereas other invasive and native plants may expand their ranges.
http://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/early/2017/03/21/1609633114.abstract.html?collection



In Ecosystems
Methane emissions from trees
Tree trunks act as methane source in upland forests
A new study is one of the first in the world to show that tree trunks in upland forests actually emit methane rather than store it, representing a new, previously unaccounted source of this powerful greenhouse gas.
http://www.udel.edu/udaily/2017/march/methane-emissions-from-trees/
Article
Daniel L. Warner, Samuel Villarreal, Kelsey McWilliams, Shreeram Inamdar, Rodrigo Vargas. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Fluxes From Tree Stems, Coarse Woody Debris, and Soils in an Upland Temperate Forest. Ecosystems, 2017
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10021-016-0106-8



In Polar Biology
Melting sea ice may lead to more life in the sea
Every year an increasing amount of sea ice is melting in the Arctic. This can start a chain reaction, which leads to increased production of algae and hence more food for creatures in the sea.
http://www.sdu.dk/en/om_sdu/fakulteterne/naturvidenskab/aktuelt/2017_03_23_meltponds

Article
Heidi Louise Sørensen, Bo Thamdrup, Erik Jeppesen, Søren Rysgaard, Ronnie Nøhr Glud. Nutrient availability limits biological production in Arctic sea ice melt ponds. Polar Biology, 2017
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00300-017-2082-7



In Global Change Biology
What climate change means for leaf litter
The carbon dioxide coming from some of Earth's tiniest residents may not be increasing as quickly as some believed in the face of global climate change.
http://news.fiu.edu/2017/03/what-climate-change-means-for-leaf-litter/110181
Article
Jennifer J. Follstad Shah et al. Global synthesis of the temperature sensitivity of leaf litter breakdown in streams and rivers, Global Change Biology (2017)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13609/abstract;jsessionid=95F6E382A2E615C8850246A463F15D4C.f03t04



From University of Wisconsin-Madison
When it comes to biological populations, expect the unexpected
Human beings are familiar with the idea of extreme events. Meteorologists keep us up to date on hurricanes, floods and high temperatures. Economists watch the stock market for signs of crashes or rallies. We spend a lot of time trying to better predict these events, yet are often surprised when they occur.
http://news.wisc.edu/when-it-comes-to-biological-populations-expect-the-unexpected/




Presse

Scientists print 3D models of Great Barrier Reef in bid to save it
Scientists are using 3D printing technology to create prosthetic coral that could be used to help the Great Barrier Reef recover from bleaching and storms.
Researchers at the University of Sydney are creating virtual 3D maps of coral reefs to precisely model how their structure is altering as a result of environmental change.
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/mar/31/scientists-print-3d-model-of-great-barrier-reef-in-bid-to-save-it



Recommandé par Sevastianos Roussos, d'après lui C. Pinatel est le meilleur animateur du Centre technique de l'olive de l'Afidol.
Alpes : Domaine Salvator, une huile d'olive qui vaut de l'or
Chez les Pinatel, l'olive est une histoire de famille. Cinq générations qu'on la cultive. Après les frères André et Charly, les cousins Frédéric et Sophie ont repris l'exploitation familiale, située aux Mées. Depuis 1902, l'exploitation a beaucoup évolué. Quelques vignes et oliviers, des légumes, céréales, de l'élevage.
Puis "le canal EDF est arrivé. Ça a été bénéfique pour l'irrigation des terres" explique Frédéric. L'oléiculture demande peu d'eau mais n'est pas rentable. "À cette époque, produire un kilo coûte 1,50 € et ce même kilo s'achetait entre 1€ et 1,50 €.
Beaucoup d'oliviers ont été arrachés au profit de cultures plus rentables."
http://www.laprovence.com/article/economie/4385277/domaine-salvator-une-huile-dolive-qui-vaut-de-lor.html



Arles : la démoustication alternative s'expérimente au Sambuc, avec les bornes de Techno Bam
Les bornes de Techno Bam, installées depuis 2015, seront testées cet été encore
http://www.laprovence.com/article/edition-arles/4386962/arles-la-demoustication-alternative-sexperimente-au-sambuc-avec-les-bornes-de-techno-bam.html