IMBE News – Mardi 4 avril 2016

 

 

Appel pour la promotion de la recherche de haut niveau en Europe
L’excellence de la recherche européenne est un impératif pour répondre aux attentes élevées des sociétés face aux défis présents et à venir.
Pour appuyer cet impératif et l’urgence de sa prise en compte, les présidents du CNRS et de la Max Planck Gesellschaft (MPG) ont réuni, le 7 mars dernier, les présidents et représentants de haut niveau de quelques très grandes universités européennes, académies de pays de l’est et organismes de recherche prestigieux, avec des représentants de groupes industriels.
Un appel commun a été signé pour promouvoir la recherche européenne, base de la compétitivité, de la productivité et de la prospérité de l’Europe.
Un livre blanc reprendra prochainement l’ensemble des contributions des participants.
http://www.cnrs.fr/fr/organisme/espacedoc.htm#appel

Added Value of Excellence in European Research : http://www.cnrs.fr/fr/pdf/Added_Value_of_Excellence_in_European_Research.pdf




UNIVERSITE

U-Multirank, un classement et trois confirmations sur l’enseignement supérieur
La dernière livraison d’un classement international des établissements d’enseignement supérieur, U-Multirank, le 30 mars dernier, fait la part belle aux institutions françaises.
Sur les 62 établissements de l’Hexagone présents dans ce classement (pour quelque 1.500 dans le monde), la plupart tirent leur épingle du jeu.
http://focuscampus.blog.lemonde.fr/2017/04/03/u-multirank-un-classement-et-trois-confirmations-sur-lenseignement-superieur/


L’université déploie ses filières à l’international
A l’instar des grandes écoles, certaines universités multiplient les cursus avec une période à l’étranger, voire des doubles diplômes.
Des filières souvent très sélectives.
Conscientes de l’attrait croissant des étudiants pour les expériences à l’international, les universités ont développé des cursus intégrant des périodes obligatoires à l’étranger, comme le font, depuis déjà plus d’une décennie, les grandes écoles
http://www.lemonde.fr/campus/article/2017/04/03/l-universite-deploie-ses-filieres-a-l-international_5105112_4401467.html

« Le campus d’une université américaine, c’est vraiment impressionnant ! »
Mélanie Bordonaro, partie pour son master en échange universitaire à Kansas City, aux Etats-Unis, raconte le fonctionnement des cours, des examens et du campus, et conseille ceux qui veulent partir.
... « Avant de partir, on établit une liste de cours que l’on souhaite suivre. On a un choix incroyable – beaucoup plus qu’en France, d’ailleurs les Américains appellent ça “le catalogue”.
http://www.lemonde.fr/campus/article/2017/04/04/le-campus-d-une-universite-americaine-c-est-vraiment-impressionnant_5105507_4401467.html

Les cordées de la réussite : une ouverture du secondaire sur le supérieur… et réciproquement
Au lendemain de la publication des résultats de l’enquête nationale menée par Synoptic et le CGET sur les « cordées de la réussite », et après cinq ans d’existence, il paraît important de faire le point sur les résultats de la cordée « Banlieue-Est, cap vers les sciences ».
https://theconversation.com/les-cordees-de-la-reussite-une-ouverture-du-secondaire-sur-le-superieur-et-reciproquement-75377
Cordées de la réussite :
http://www.cget.gouv.fr/actualites/une-etude-de-suivi-sur-les-cordees-de-la-reussite-2015-2016



CLIMAT

Then and now: How glaciers around the world are melting
Over the past decade, scientists and photographers keep returning to the world's glaciers, watching them shrink with each visit. Now they want others to see how a warming planet is melting masses of ice in a series of before-and-after photos.
https://phys.org/news/2017-04-glaciers-world.html

US states begin legal action on Trump energy delay
Twelve US states and municipalities on Monday announced legal action against the Trump administration over delayed or stalled enforcement of energy saving standards for various consumer and commercial products.
https://phys.org/news/2017-04-states-legal-action-trump-energy.html



REFLEXION
Reach and speed of judgment propagation in the laboratory
Mehdi Moussaïd, Stefan M. Herzog, Juliane E. Kämmer, and Ralph Hertwig
Individual judgments, feelings, and behaviors can spread from person to person in social networks, similarly to the propagation of infectious diseases. Despite major implications for many social phenomena, the underlying social-contagion processes are poorly understood. We examined how participants’ perceptual judgments spread from one person to another and across diffusion chains. We gauged the speed, reach, and scale of social contagion.
Judgment propagation tended to slow down with increasing social distance from the source. Crucially, it vanished beyond a social horizon of three to four people. These results advance the understanding of some of the mechanisms underlying social-contagion phenomena as well as their scope across domains as diverse as political mobilization, health practices, and emotions.
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/03/28/1611998114.abstract.html?etoc




Publication IMBE

In Columella
Detection and quantification of enzyme activity of ericoid fungi under solid-state fermentation - Ahlam HAMIM, Sevastianos ROUSSOS, Robin DUPONNOIS, Rachid MRABET, Mohamed HAFIDI
Columella - Volume 4, Number 1 (2017) suppl.
http://bib.irb.hr/datoteka/868197.Columella_V4_N1_2017_suppl.pdf#page=255



Annonces

Ségolène Royal annonce une série de mesures pour protéger l'environnement en Méditerranée
Ségolène Royal, était à Monaco, lundi 3 avril. La ministre de l'Environnement a annoncé vouloir créer une zone de "basses émissions des navires en Méditerranée".
La ministre a également annoncé vouloir renforcer la protection des cétacés et des mammifères marins dans le Sanctuaire Pelagos.
http://france3-regions.francetvinfo.fr/provence-alpes-cote-d-azur/segolene-royal-annonce-serie-mesures-proteger-environnement-mediterranee-1227447.html#xtor=EPR-521-[france3regions]-20170404-[info-bouton1]


Rappel, dans le poste ... Science grand format  - « Conquérir les Océans »
Mercredi 5 avril à 20h45. sur France 5
Contribution IMBE
http://www.francetvpro.fr/france-5/programmes/2215378
Rediffusion le samedi 8 avril à 16h10, disponible en replay le 6 avril sur Pluzz : http://pluzz.francetv.fr/


Rappel : A qui appartient la MER ?
Jeudi 6 avril - MARSEILLE - Villa Méditerranée - 18H00
Florence GALLETTI, Chercheuse à l’IRD, associée au Centre de droit économique et du développement de la Faculté de droit de Perpignan.
Walter ROEST, Géophysicien à l’Ifremer et membre de la Commission des limites du plateau continental ONU.
https://www.controversations.fr/controversations-suivantes


Lancement du Prix PEPITE - Tremplin pour l'Entrepreneuriat Etudiant 2017
Le ministère de l'Education nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche et la Caisse des Dépôts lancent le 3 avril 2017, la 4ème édition du Prix PEPITE - Tremplin pour l'Entrepreneuriat Etudiant, volet étudiant d'i-LAB, dispositif de soutien à la création d'entreprises innovantes.
La date limite de dépôt des candidatures est fixée au 16 juin 2017.
http://www.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/cid114947/lancement-du-prix-pepite-tremplin-pour-l-entrepreneuriat-etudiant-2017.html


Anthropocene Daily Science
* On many farms, reducing pesticides probably won’t hurt profit or yields by Emma Bryce | Mar 31, 2017
http://www.anthropocenemagazine.org/2017/03/on-many-farms-reducing-pesticides-probably-wont-hurt-profit-or-yields/
* Good intentions alone won’t grow new mangroves by Brandon Keim | Mar 29, 2017
http://www.anthropocenemagazine.org/2017/03/mangrove-restoration-problems/




Parutions


In Animal Behaviour
Scientists go out on a limb to study tree-climbing land snails
Land snails are generally believed to be ground-dwelling creatures, preferring dark and humid places, like the forest floor, or a suburban garden. So why do we find some species of snails in the tops of trees, where it is relatively light and dry? Researchers have performed some fascinating research to find out why.
http://www.tsukuba.ac.jp/en/research-list/p201703311445
Article
Ikuyo Saeki, Shigeru Niwa, Noriyuki Osada, Fujio Hyodo, Tamihisa Ohta, Yoshitaka Oishi, Tsutom Hiura. Adaptive significance of arboreality: field evidence from a tree-climbing land snail. Animal Behaviour, 2017
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347217300696


In Journal of Water and Climate Change
It's not too late to conserve water resources in rapidly urbanizing areas
Despite climate change plus urban growth, study says planning can help
As climate change and population pressure intensify in suburbia, a new study by a watershed scientist suggests that threats such as water shortages and poor quality can be met if managers begin to act now. He modeled how this watershed is going to look in the next 90 years taking both into account.
http://www.umass.edu/newsoffice/article/it%E2%80%99s-not-too-late-conserve-water-resources
Article
Ammara Talib, Timothy O. Randhir. Climate change and land use impacts on hydrologic processes of watershed systems. Journal of Water and Climate Change, 2017
http://jwcc.iwaponline.com/content/early/2017/03/24/wcc.2017.064


In Plos One

Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution
Robert Brodschneider, Anika Libor, Vera Kupelwieser, Karl Crailsheim
We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera) under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis). Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174684
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347217300696


Phylogenetic conservation of substrate use specialization in leaf litter bacteria
Kristin L. Dolan, Jeniffer Peña, Steven D. Allison, Jennifer B. H. Martiny
Environmental change will influence the ecosystem processes regulated by microbial communities, including leaf litter decomposition. To assess how microbial communities and their functioning might respond to increases in temperature, we quantified the distribution of traits related to carbon substrate utilization and temperature sensitivity in leaf litter bacteria isolated from a natural grassland ecosystem in Southern California.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174472


Aridity influences the recovery of vegetation and shrubland birds after wildfire
Roger Puig-Gironès, Lluís Brotons, Pere Pons
Wildfires play a determining role in the composition and structure of many plant and animal communities. On the other hand, climate change is considered to be a major driver of current and future fire regime changes. Despite increases in drought in many areas of the world, the effects of aridity on post-fire colonization by animals have been rarely addressed. This study aims to analyse how a regional aridity gradient affects post-fire recovery of vegetation, bird species richness and the numbers of four early to middle-successional warbler species associated with the shrub cover.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0173599


A farm-level precision land management framework based on integer programming
Qi Li, Guiping Hu, Talukder Zaki Jubery, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian
Farmland management involves several planning and decision making tasks including seed selection and irrigation management. A farm-level precision farmland management model based on mixed integer linear programming is proposed in this study.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174680


Olive oil bioactives protect pigs against experimentally-induced chronic inflammation independently of alterations in gut microbiota
Martin Liehr, Alessandro Mereu, Jose Javier Pastor, Jose Carlos Quintela, Stefanie Staats, Gerald Rimbach, Ignacio Rodolfo Ipharraguerre
Subclinical chronic inflammation (SCI) is associated with impaired animal growth. Previous work has demonstrated that olive-derived plant bioactives exhibit anti-inflammatory properties that could possibly counteract the growth-depressing effects of SCI. To test this hypothesis and define the underlying mechanism, we conducted a 30-day study in which piglets fed an olive-oil bioactive extract (OBE) and their control counterparts (C+) were injected repeatedly during the last 10 days of the study with increasing doses of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce SCI.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174239


Improvement of identification methods for honeybee specific Lactic Acid Bacteria; future approaches

Sepideh Lamei, Yue O. O. Hu, Tobias C. Olofsson, Anders F. Andersson, Eva Forsgren, Alejandra Vásquez
Honeybees face many parasites and pathogens and consequently rely on a diverse set of individual and group-level defenses to prevent disease. The crop microbiota of Apis mellifera, composed of 13 Lactic Acid Bacterial (LAB) species within the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, form a beneficial symbiotic relationship with each other and the honeybee to protect their niche and their host.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174614


Impacts of 120 years of fertilizer addition on a temperate grassland ecosystem
Jonathan Kidd, Peter Manning, Janet Simkin, Simon Peacock, Elizabeth Stockdale
The widespread application of fertilizers has greatly influenced many processes and properties of agroecosystems, and agricultural fertilization is expected to increase even further in the future. To date, most research on fertilizer impacts has used short-term studies, which may be unrepresentative of long-term responses, thus hindering our capacity to predict long-term impacts.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174632


Phylogenetic conservation of substrate use specialization in leaf litter bacteria
Kristin L. Dolan, Jeniffer Peña, Steven D. Allison, Jennifer B. H. Martiny
Environmental change will influence the ecosystem processes regulated by microbial communities, including leaf litter decomposition. To assess how microbial communities and their functioning might respond to increases in temperature, we quantified the distribution of traits related to carbon substrate utilization and temperature sensitivity in leaf litter bacteria isolated from a natural grassland ecosystem in Southern California.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174472


Nature's patchwork: How water sources and soil salinity determine the distribution and structure of halophytic plant communities in arid environments of the Eastern Pamir
Monika Metrak, Lukasz Chachulski, Dovutsho Navruzshoev, Pawel Pawlikowski, Elzbieta Rojan, Marcin Sulwinski, Malgorzata Suska-Malawska
The eastern part of the Pamir Mountains, located in Central Asia, is characterized by great climatic continentality and aridity. Wetlands developed in this hostile region are restricted to spring areas, terraces of shallow lakes or floodplains along rivers, and provide diversified ecosystem services e.g. as water reservoirs, refugia for rare species and pastures for domestic cattle.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174496



In PNAS

Contrasting nitrogen and phosphorus budgets in urban watersheds and implications for managing urban water pollution
Sarah E. Hobbie, Jacques C. Finlay, Benjamin D. Janke, Daniel A. Nidzgorski, Dylan B. Millet, and Lawrence A. Baker
Urban waters remain widely impaired by excess nutrients, despite substantial management efforts. We present a comparison of urban watershed nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budgets. Household actions of lawn fertilization and pet ownership were responsible for the majority of watershed N and P inputs, respectively. N and P exhibited contrasting dynamics within watersheds. Watersheds exported most or all P inputs via stormwater runoff, likely contributing to surface water degradation.
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/03/28/1618536114.abstract.html?etoc


Model predicts number of species yet to be discovered regionally
Many scientists have developed models to predict the total number of species on Earth—including those not yet discovered—of an animal or plant group, but University of Chicago researchers have developed the first such model that breaks the number down by region, providing a valuable new tool for biodiversity inventory and analysis.
https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2016AM/webprogram/Paper283819.html
Article
Stewart M. Edie et al. Probabilistic models of species discovery and biodiversity comparisons, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2017).
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/03/20/1616355114


New species evolve faster as mountains form
Evidence for popular theory of why mountains are rich in biodiversity
Mountains, like rainforests, are hotbeds of biodiversity. But scientists aren't sure why. For years, they've thought that it might be related to the new environments that arise when mountains form -- as plants and animals adapt to the new micro-habitats forming along mountainsides, they divide into new species at a faster rate than usual. But there was little hard proof supporting this hypothesis -- until now.
https://phys.org/news/2017-04-species-evolve-faster-mountains.html
Article
Yaowu Xinga,, Richard H. Ree. Uplift-driven diversification in the Hengduan Mountains, a temperate biodiversity hotspot. PNAS, April 2017
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/03/28/1616063114


Prehistoric art and ornaments from Indonesian 'Ice Age'
A joint Indonesian-Australian team has unearthed a rare collection of prehistoric art and 'jewellery' objects from the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, dating in some instances to as early as 30,000 years ago.
https://app.secure.griffith.edu.au/news/2017/04/04/researchers-uncover-prehistoric-art-and-ornaments-from-indonesian-ice-age/
Article
Rainer Grün et al. Early human symbolic behavior in the Late Pleistocene of Wallacea. PNAS, April 2017
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/03/28/1619013114



From Royal Holloway, University of London
Knowledge is not always power when it comes to bumblebees
Research from the School of Biological Sciences at Royal Holloway has found that being smart does not necessarily mean you are bringing home the most bacon, if you are a bumble bee at least.
https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/aboutus/newsandevents/news/2017-articles/knowledge-is-not-always-power-when-it-comes-to-bumblebees.aspx


In
Frontiers in Earth Science


Microbial colonizers of Arctic soils are sensitive to future climate change
Ecosystems created by melting glaciers in the Arctic are sensitive to climate change and human activity, new research indicates.
http://www.bristol.ac.uk/news/2017/april/microbial-colonisers.html
Article
James A. Bradley et al. Microbial and Biogeochemical Dynamics in Glacier Forefields Are Sensitive to Century-Scale Climate and Anthropogenic Change. April 2017, April 2017
http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/feart.2017.00026/full


From Fires to Oceans: Dynamics of Fire-Derived Organic Matter in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems
Fire-derived organic matter is ubiquitous on Earth. It can be found in soils, sediments, rivers and oceans. In this wide range of environments, fire-derived organic matter, also known as pyrogenic carbon (PyC), represents a key component of the organic matter pool, and, in many cases, the largest identifiable ...
http://journal.frontiersin.org/researchtopic/5135/from-fires-to-oceans-dynamics-of-fire-derived-organic-matter-in-terrestrial-and-aquatic-ecosystems


Progress in Ecological Stoichiometry
Robert Warner Sterner , James Cotner , James Joseph Elser , Adam Martiny and Dedmer B. Van de Waal
Ecological stoichiometry concerns the way that the elemental composition of organisms shapes their ecology. It deals with balance and imbalanced elemental ratios and how that affects organism growth, nutrient cycling, and the interactions with the ...
http://journal.frontiersin.org/researchtopic/4961/progress-in-ecological-stoichiometry






Presse

 Le "documenteur" d'Arte, la leçon d'un canular sur le Néandertalien
La chaîne a diffusé un "vrai-faux documentaire" pour le 1er avril. Ce nouveau genre doit aiguiser l'esprit critique des téléspectateurs.
http://www.lepoint.fr/medias/le-documenteur-d-arte-la-lecon-d-un-canular-sur-le-neandertalien-02-04-2017-2116666_260.php

Rappel : Documenteur : un genre fictionnel qui fait réfléchir - Néandertal et ARTE, la vérité si je mens.
http://huet.blog.lemonde.fr/2017/04/02/neandertal-et-arte-la-verite-si-je-mens/


Record de douceur en mars en France
Le mois de mars a enregistré des valeurs normalement enregistrées au cours du mois de mai.
Avec une moyenne de 11 °C, le mois de mars 2017 a été l’un des plus chauds en France depuis 1900, annonce Météo France, lundi 3 avril. Mars 2017 a été très chaud mais aussi « plutôt bien arrosé », a précisé Christine Berne, climatologue à Météo France, même si des régions habituellement pluvieuses (Bretagne, Ardennes, Nord) ont été davantage épargnées.
http://www.lemonde.fr/climat/article/2017/04/03/record-de-douceur-en-mars-en-france_5105288_1652612.html


California's desert wildflower explosion draws record crowds
An explosion of wildflowers in California's desert sands is drawing record crowds to see the rare abundance of color called a "super bloom."
The natural wonder is thanks to a wet winter followed by warm temperatures in the Anza-Borrego State Park, northeast of San Diego. Wildflower seeds that have been dormant for years in the drought-plagued region have sprouted in mass, producing a spectacular display not seen in 20 years.
Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-03-california-wildflower-explosion-crowds.html#jCp


Territoire du Mortanais : pour un bocage encore plus vert
Le territoire du Mortainais, intégré dans la communauté d'agglomération Mont-Saint-Michel Normandie depuis le 1er janvier 2017, démarre la mise en oeuvre de son programme d'actions de territoire à énergie positive pour la croissance verte. Tour d'horizon des projets phares de ce territoire rural, au coeur du bocage normand.
http://www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/bocage-encore-plus-vert?utm_source=France+Environnement+Energie&utm_campaign=d97199f82b-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_01_12&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_c46822c3ae-d97199f82b-205622933



Babies cry most in UK, Canada, Italy, Netherlands !

Psychologists have created world's first universal charts for normal amount of crying in babies during first three months. On average, babies around the world cry for around 2 hours per day in first two weeks, peak at 2 hours 15 mins at six weeks -- and crying reduces to 1 hour 10 minutes by week twelve. Their study found that babies cry more in Britain, Canada and Italy, than the rest of the world, according to new research. In Denmark, Germany and Japan, parents deal with the least amount of crying and fussing.
http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/newsandevents/pressreleases/babies_cry_most/