IMBE News – Vendredi 17 mars 2017

 

 

CNRS - Les médailles de cristal 2017
La médaille de cristal du CNRS distingue des ingénieurs, des techniciens et des administratifs.
Elle récompense celles et ceux qui, par leur créativité, leur maîtrise technique et leur sens de l'innovation,

contribuent aux côtés des chercheurs à l'avancée des savoirs et à l'excellence de la recherche française.

 Pour l'INEE ...
   * Patricia Bentoza, Institut méditerranéen de biodiversité et d'écologie marine et continentale (IMBE)
   * Charline Parenteau, Centre d'études biologiques de Chizé (CEBC)
http://www.cnrs.fr/fr/recherche/prix/cristal.htm



UNIVERSITE

Élections : candidats et doctorat, encore un effort ?
Il y a un an nous écrivions un article, une tribune diraient certains (et nous pourrions même l’avouer !) autour d’une question centrale :

la valorisation du doctorat et l’enjeu qu’elle représente pour le développement socio-économique de notre pays, alors qu’il demeure moins reconnu que dans bien d’autres.
Un an après, force est de dire que bien peu de choses ont évolué, même si la réforme du doctorat a eu lieu avec des évolutions réglementaires intervenues depuis. Mais comme l’écrivait le sociologue Michel Crozier, « on ne change pas la société par décret » : suffit-il de prendre des mesures législatives ou réglementaires pour qu’elles soient appliquées ?
https://theconversation.com/elections-candidats-et-doctorat-encore-un-effort-74099

Il y a un an ... https://theconversation.com/un-an-apres-quoi-de-neuf-docteur-la-valorisation-du-doctorat-un-levier-pour-lavenir-55785


L’Allemagne en tête d’un classement des pays européens où il fait bon étudier
La première édition du palmarès Study.eu des meilleurs pays européens pour les étudiants internationaux place l’Allemagne sur la première marche du podium, devant le Royaume-Uni. La France arrive quatrième.
http://www.lemonde.fr/campus/article/2017/03/16/l-allemagne-en-tete-d-un-classement-des-pays-europeens-ou-il-fait-bon-etudier_5095543_4401467.html



Le pire est encore à venir ...

Trump and climate chaos: a letter to my daughter
Jeremy Hance
Jeremy Hance writes a letter to his young daughter as a part of the Letters to the Revolution initiative
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/radical-conservation/2017/mar/14/trump-and-climate-chaos-a-letter-to-my-daughter


Trump coupe les fonds, l’Amérique monte au front

Le président américain a présenté jeudi un budget qui taille drastiquement dans l’aide aux plus pauvres, la santé, l’environnement ou encore la culture… De quoi alimenter une résistance citoyenne ravivée par la suspension du deuxième décret anti-immigration.
http://www.liberation.fr/planete/2017/03/16/trump-coupe-les-fonds-l-amerique-monte-au-front_1556281


Trump budget would gut EPA programs tackling climate change and pollution
Proposal would cut Environmental Protection Agency’s funding by nearly a third, as budget director calls money spent to combat climate change a ‘waste’
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/mar/16/trump-budget-cuts-climate-change-clean-up-programs-epa


Aux Etats-Unis, le déclin des candidatures d’étudiants étrangers

L’élection de Donald Trump et la fermeture des frontières se font déjà sentir : 39 % des universités américaines font état d’une baisse des demandes d’inscriptions d’étudiants internationaux.
http://www.lemonde.fr/campus/article/2017/03/14/aux-etats-unis-le-declin-des-candidatures-d-etudiants-etrangers_5094481_4401467.html

 

 

AGROECOLOGIE

Pesticides : l’Agence européenne des produits chimiques blanchit le glyphosate
L’Agence européenne des produits chimiques a annoncé, mercredi, qu’elle ne classait pas le glyphosate parmi les agents cancérogènes.
http://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2017/03/15/pesticides-l-agence-europeenne-des-produits-chimiques-blanchit-le-glyphosate_5094851_3244.html

Non, les pesticides ne sont pas nécessaires pour nourrir la planète

Un rapport rédigé par des experts de l'ONU alarme sur les conséquences de l'usage des pesticides. Ces chercheurs souhaitent l'élaboration d'un traité mondial contraignant et promeuvent «l'agroécologie».
http://www.liberation.fr/planete/2017/03/10/non-les-pesticides-ne-sont-pas-necessaires-pour-nourrir-la-planete_1554538


CLIMAT

Stopping global warming is only way to save Great Barrier Reef, scientists warn
Improvements to water quality or fishing controls don’t prevent underwater heatwaves damaging coral, studies of mass bleaching events reveal
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/mar/15/stopping-global-warming-is-only-way-to-save-great-barrier-reef-scientists-warn


More Than 900 Examples of How Climate Change Affects Business
“Choose a company or non-profit organization whose operating model is likely to be significantly affected by climate change’s physical manifestations and/or related regulation, including threats and opportunities associated with mitigation and/or adaptation,” the assignment read. “Describe how the organization is likely to be affected, the steps the organization is taking to address those effects, and describe and justify what additional steps you think the organization should consider implementing.”

https://www.forbes.com/sites/hbsworkingknowledge/2017/03/15/more-than-900-examples-of-how-climate-change-affects-business/#3ed5d2e25306



MEDITERRANEE ... Aux îles d'or ensoleillées, Aux rivages sans nuages, Au ciel enchantéééé ...

SAVE THE DATE - La Méditerranée en devenir 2017 - bilan et perspectives des actions sur le champs des études méditerranéennes
Date : Mercredi 05 avril 2017 (9h-19h)
Siège d’Aix-Marseille Université - Pharo

La Méditerranée, mer noire en devenir
«Libération» a eu accès au rapport de MedTrends sur les exploitations pétrolière et gazière offshore qui menacent un écosystème déjà très fragilisé.
http://www.liberation.fr/planete/2016/01/18/la-mediterranee-mer-noire-en-devenir_1427283

CROISSANCE BLEUE :  LA MÉDITERRANÉE FACE AU DÉFI DU BON ÉTAT ÉCOLOGIQUE - SYNTHÈSE EUROPÉENNE
http://awsassets.wwfffr.panda.org/downloads/medtrends__page_par_page_bd.pdf

 


Annonces

Emploi
Chargé(e) d’études agri-environnement CDD de 4 mois H/F

Conservatoires d'Espaces Naturels
Contrat de travail : CDD - 4 mois  -  Expérience requise : 3 à 5 ans
Rémunération : à négocier
Localisation : France / Rhone-Alpes / VOURLES
Secteurs d'activité : • Milieu naturel biodiversité : Aménagement, exploitation, Ingénierie, étude, recherche, Surveillance, contrôle, restauration    
https://www.emploi-environnement.com/fr/gestion_offre/visu_offre.php4?reference_offre=153929


Journées des arts et de la culture dans l'enseignement supérieur
L'édition 2017 des Journées des arts et de la culture dans l'enseignement supérieur (JACES) se tiendra les 28, 29 et 30 mars prochains.
Son objectif : mettre en lumière les réalisations culturelles et artistiques des établissements et permettre ainsi l'accès du plus grand nombre à la culture. Ces journées s'inscrivent dans le cadre du renforcement de la présence artistique dans l'enseignement, de l'école à l'université.
http://www.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/cid114406/4e-edition-des-journees-des-arts-et-de-la-culture-dans-l-enseignement-superieur.html



IPBES Notification
Second order drafts of the thematic assessment report on land degradation and restoration
As part of the open, transparent and collaborative process in the development of IPBES assessment reports, the IPBES secretariat is pleased to inform you that the period for the external review of the second order drafts of the thematic assessment report on land degradation and restoration and of the four regional assessments (Africa, Asia-Pacific, Americas, and Europe and Central Asia) on biodiversity and ecosystem services, as well as the first order drafts of their Summaries for Policymakers is fast approaching.
http://us8.campaign-archive1.com/?u=5da0fed71c7e4399fb28ab549&id=500f82ebbb&e=1bc95c2608

 


Parutions

« Les Big Data à découvert »
Ouvrage collectif sous la direction de Mokrane Bouzeghoub et Rémy Mosseri
Parution le 16 mars chez CNRS Editions - 350 pages – 39 €
http://www2.cnrs.fr/presse/communique/4945.htm


Research at Princeton
Deep-sea corals reveal why atmospheric carbon was lower during the ice ages
We know a lot about how carbon dioxide (CO2) levels can drive climate change, but how about the way that climate change can cause fluctuations in CO2 levels? New research from an international team of scientists reveals one of the mechanisms by which a colder climate was accompanied by depleted atmospheric CO2 during past ice ages.
http://blogs.princeton.edu/research/2017/03/16/deep-sea-corals-reveal-why-atmospheric-carbon-was-lower-during-the-ice-ages/

Article
Deep-sea coral evidence for lower Southern Ocean surface nitrate concentrations during the last ice age - Xingchen Tony Wang, Daniel M. Sigman, Maria G. Prokopenko, Jess F. Adkins, Laura F. Robinson, Sophia K. Hines, Junyi Chai, Anja S. Studer, Alfredo Martínez-García, Tianyu Chen, and Gerald H. Haug, was published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences early edition the week of March 13, 2017.
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/03/14/1615718114.abstract?sid=104bebb2-0372-4fb9-bbb8-4544a96248f7


Climate Change Has ‘Permanently’ Changed the Great Barrier Reef
Scientists speculate that the era of never-ending global coral bleaching may have already arrived, decades early.
It’s a tough time to be a coral reef on planet Earth. And, at the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, there’s new evidence that climate change may have already pushed the world’s most productive ecosystems into a new normal?—?prompting a rapid and radical re-think in conservation strategies
https://psmag.com/climate-change-has-permanently-changed-the-great-barrier-reef-64227c9d4eec#.58ij63x2p


In Nature
How plankton cope with turbulence
Microscopic marine plankton are not helplessly adrift in the ocean. They can perceive cues that indicate turbulence, rapidly respond to regulate their behavior and actively adapt. Researchers have demonstrated for the first time how they do this.
https://www.ethz.ch/en/news-and-events/eth-news/news/2017/03/how-plankton-cope-with-turbulence.html

Article
Anupam Sengupta, Francesco Carrara, Roman Stocker. Phytoplankton can actively diversify their migration strategy in response to turbulent cues.
Nature, 2017
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature21415.html


In Crop Science
Wildly stronger sunflowers
Wild sunflowers provide resilient diversity
Annually, diseases, weeds, and insects are estimated to cause more than $1.3 billion in losses for sunflower growers. To combat this, researchers are preserving the genetic diversity of wild sunflowers. Wild plants retain the genes needed to resist pests and survive in different environments.
https://www.agronomy.org/science-news/wildly-stronger-sunflowers

Article
Gerald J. Seiler, Lili L. Qi, Laura F. Marek. Utilization of Sunflower Crop Wild Relatives for Cultivated Sunflower Improvement. Crop Science, 2017
https://dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/cs/abstracts/0/0/cropsci2016.10.0856


In PLoS ONE
Marine recovery after mass extinction was likely delayed by further biotic crises
Late Permian mass extinction was followed by two Triassic extinction events
Biotic crises during the Triassic period may have delayed marine recovery after a mass extinction during the late Permian, according to a new study.
https://pearl.plymouth.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/10026.1/8583/Foster%20et%20al%20biotic%20crises.docx.pdf?sequence=1

Article
Foster WJ, Danise S, Price GD, Twitchett RJ. Subsequent biotic crises delayed marine recovery following the late Permian mass extinction event in northern Italy. PLoS ONE, 2017
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0172321


In PNAS
Cold climates and ocean carbon sequestration
Deep-sea corals reveal why atmospheric carbon was reduced during colder time periods
Efficient nutrient consumption by plankton in the Southern Ocean drove carbon sequestration in the deep ocean during the ice ages, a new study suggests.
http://www.caltech.edu/news/study-cold-climates-and-ocean-carbon-sequestration-54398

Article
Wang, X.T., Maria G. Prokopenko, M.G., Sigman, D.M., Adkins, J.F., Robinson, L.F., Hines, S.K., Chai, J., and Haug, G.H. Deep-sea coral evidence for lower Southern Ocean surface nitrate concentrations during the last ice age. PNAS, March 2017
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/03/14/1615718114


In Science
How improved valves let grasses 'breathe,' cope with climate change
New work from a joint team of plant biologists and ecologists has uncovered the factor behind an important innovation that makes grasses -- both the kind that make up native prairies and the kind we've domesticated for crops -- among the most-common and widespread plants on the planet. Their findings may enable the production of plants that perform better in warmer and dryer climate conditions.
https://carnegiescience.edu/news/how-improved-valves-let-grasses-%E2%80%9Cbreathe%E2%80%9D-cope-climate-change

Article
Michael T. Raissig, Juliana L. Matos, M. Ximena Anleu Gil, Ari Kornfeld, Akhila Bettadapur, Emily Abrash, Hannah R. Allison, Grayson Badgley, John P. Vogel, Joseph A. Berry, Dominique C. Bergmann. Mobile MUTE specifies subsidiary cells to build physiologically improved grass stomata. Science, 2017
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/355/6330/1215


In Nature
Hawaiian biodiversity has been declining for millions of years
Shrinking land area crowds species, leading to long-term diversity loss on older islands
DNA analysis led some biologists to conclude that evolutionary diversification in Hawaii has yet to peak, but a new analysis shows the opposite: biodiversity on the island chain peaked millions of years ago and has been decreasing every since. On the older islands, because of crowding caused by shrinking land area, species were being lost long before humans entered the mix.
http://news.berkeley.edu/2017/03/16/hawaiian-biodiversity-has-been-declining-for-millions-of-years/

Article
Jun Y. Lim, Charles R. Marshall. The true tempo of evolutionary radiation and decline revealed on the Hawaiian archipelago. Nature, 2017
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature21675.html


In Science
Operation of ancient biological clock uncovered
The operation of one of the oldest biological clocks in the world has, which is crucial for life on earth as we know it, has now been discovered by scientists. The researchers applied a new combination of cutting-edge research techniques. They discovered how the biological clock in cyanobacteria works in detail. Important to understand life, because cyanobacteria were the first organisms on earth producing oxygen via photosynthesis.
https://www.uu.nl/en/news/operation-of-ancient-biological-clock-uncovered

Article
Joost Snijder, Jan M. Schuller, Anika Wiegard, Philip Lössl, Nicolas Schmelling, Ilka M. Axmann, Jürgen M. Plitzko, Friedrich Förster, Albert J. R. Heck. Structures of the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator frozen in a fully assembled state. Science, 2017
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/355/6330/1181


In Nature Communications
New plant research leads to the discovery of a gene that significantly increases seed yield in maize
A gene that significantly increases plant growth and seed yield in maize has been discovered by researchers. Research into crop yield is crucial because of the increasing incidence of extreme weather conditions affecting agriculture. The results from laboratory research were confirmed during two-year field trials conducted in Belgium and the United States showing that this gene can increase seed yield in maize hybrids by 10 to 15%.
http://www.vib.be/en/news/Pages/New-plant-research-leads-to-the-discovery-of-a-gene-that-significantly-increases-seed-yield-in-maize.aspx

Article
Xiaohuan Sun, James Cahill ... Altered expression of maize PLASTOCHRON1 enhances biomass and seed yield by extending cell division duration. Nature Communications, 2017
http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14752


In eLife
Outwitting climate change with a plant 'dimmer'?
Molecular mechanism responsible for blooming in spring identified
Plants possess molecular mechanisms that prevent them from blooming in winter. Once the cold of winter has passed, they are deactivated. However, if it is still too cold in spring, plants adapt their blooming behavior accordingly. Scientists have discovered genetic changes for this adaptive behavior. In light of the temperature changes resulting from climate change, this may come in useful for securing the production of food in the future.
https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/detail/article/33807/

Article
Ulrich Lutz, Thomas Nussbaumer, Manuel Spannagl, Julia Diener, Klaus FX Mayer, Claus Schwechheimer. Natural haplotypes of FLM non-coding sequences fine-tune flowering time in ambient spring temperatures in Arabidopsis. eLife, 2017
https://elifesciences.org/content/6/e22114


From Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
Flower-rich habitats increase survival of bumblebee families
New research led by the UK's Centre for Ecology & Hydrology has revealed for the first time that flower-rich habitats are key to enhancing the survival of bumblebee families between years
New research has revealed for the first time that flower-rich habitats are key to enhancing the survival of bumblebee families between years. The results, which come from the largest ever study of its kind on wild bumblebee populations, will help farmers and policy makers manage the countryside more effectively to provide for these vital but declining pollinators.
http://www.ceh.ac.uk/news-and-media/news/flower-rich-habitats-increase-survival-bumblebee-families


In Global Change Biology
With climate change, shrubs and trees expand northwards in the Subarctic
Shrubs expand in the tundra in northern Scandinavia. And it is known that fixation of nitrogen from the air is in the tundra to a high degree performed by cyanobacteria associated with mosses. Also enhanced nitrogen fixation stimulates plant growth. New research shows that as taller shrubs expand into the tundra, nutrients in their leaf litter will either promote or reduce the nitrogen fixation, depending upon which shrub species that will dominate.
http://www1.bio.ku.dk/presserum/pressemeddelelser/with-climate-change-shrubs-and-trees-expand-northwards-in-the-subarctic/

Article
Kathrin Rousk, Anders Michelsen. Ecosystem nitrogen fixation throughout the snow-free period in subarctic tundra: effects of willow and birch litter addition and warming. Global Change Biology, 2017
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13418/abstract;jsessionid=52EB8619FD1248CC235E85C7685B8974.f03t04

 


Presse

Tribune
Oui, la transition écologique est En marche
Par François de Rugy, Député , Matthieu Orphelin , Ancien porte-parole de Nicolas Hulot , Jean-François Rial , PDG de Voyageurs du monde , Arnaud Leroy, Député , Corinne Lepage, Ancienne ministre de l'Environnement et Serge Lepeltier, Ex-ministre du Développement durable — 14 mars 2017
C’est l’un des axes du programme d’Emmanuel Macron. Cette transition, qui est aussi économique et énergétique, doit s’accomplir au plus près de la vie des concitoyens. Et avec eux.
http://www.liberation.fr/debats/2017/03/14/oui-la-transition-ecologique-est-en-marche_1555650



Le hérisson d'Europe est-il menacé de disparition ?
Depuis août, une pétition en ligne interpelle la ministre de l’Environnement afin qu’elle prenne des mesures pour «sauver» ce petit mammifère en danger. Mais contrairement au Royaume-Uni, il n’existe en France aucune donnée sur le déclin de cette espèce.
http://www.liberation.fr/futurs/2017/03/10/le-herisson-d-europe-est-il-menace-de-disparition_1554589

Pétition : https://www.change.org/p/sauvons-les-h%C3%A9rissons-en-danger



Plant thought extinct for 200 years sparks legal action against Sydney development
New South Wales environmental defenders office takes action against developers of freight terminal after the shrub hibbertia fumana found on site
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/mar/17/rare-plant-sparks-legal-action-against-sydney-development